Air Studios Montserrat

Montserrat, 23 September 2016

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On the main road, out of the exclusion zone, just north of Plymouth.

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Air Studios, Architecture, Eruption, History, Landscape, Montserrat, Nature, Photography, Plymouth, Street photography, Travel, Volcano .

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This is the tower of St Anthony’s Church.  Had I known about it at the time, I would have asked to visit.  It has been rebuilt no less than six times on the same site.  It was first built in 1635 when the colony was only a few years old by the first Governor, Anthony Brisket.  In 1666 it was burnt down by French and Caribs; on Christmas Day 1672 it was levelled by an earthquake; in 1712 it was destroyed by the French after they had used it as a barracks; in 1899 and 1928 it was destroyed by hurricanes; in 1989 it was damaged by a hurricane and in 1995 it was damaged by the volcano.

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Nearby, this is what is left of Air Studios, an international recording studio founded by George Martin, the Beatles manager.

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In the 70s and 80s, many artists recorded there including Eric Clapton, Rolling Stones, Lou Reed, Paul McCartney, Police, Dire Straits, Climax Blues Band and Jimmy Buffett.  Here is a link to a video of the Stones recording there.

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What closed the studio though was not the eruptions, it was Hurricane Hugo in 1989, which destroyed villages, killed ten people, and had sustained winds of 220km/hr and gusts up to 385km/hr.

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The interior was stripped in 2012 in preparation for a renovation but George Martin died and the renovation never happened.

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Back on the main road…

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The weather is clear and the volcano simmers away.

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This is Olveston House, where we had dinner.

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And later, a sunset over the sea from our balcony.

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The Milky Way over Montserrat.

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Montserrat Springs Hotel

Montserrat, 23 September 2016

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This is the entrance to Montserrat Springs Hotel, available to visit because it’s just outside of the exclusion zone.

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It was once an exclusive hotel with guests such as the Rolling Stones, and featured its own thermal springs.

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There was no-one at the reception desk when we visited so we couldn’t book a room.

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The decor may have faded a little.

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An accounts book is open at June 1995.

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The floor was renovated some years ago with the addition of a layer of volcanic mud.

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I think this was the dining room.

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… leading outside towards the pool.

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Diving is not recommended here any more because the mud is not as forgiving as water.

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But the salubrious fittings remain.

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From outside the hotel, some views of the ruined parts of Plymouth that were not entirely buried in the lahars and pyroclastic flows.

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An old sugar factory. it would seem.

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It looks inviting but is too far inside the exclusion zone to be available to visit.

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The previous post covered the city of Plymouth, abandoned due to the volcanic eruption and the one before detailed the remarkable history of Montserrat.  There was an even more dramatic eruption in 1903 on an island not that far away.  Mount Pelée in Martinique erupted in that year, not far from the main town of Saint-Pierre.  They knew an eruption was taking place but expected lava, to be blocked by a valley, and they didn’t know about strato volcanoes and pyroclastic flows.  Only one person survived, protected by the thick walls of the town prison.  More detail on that in a post in a different blog here.

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Plymouth (Montserrat)

Montserrat, 23 September 2016

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We are about to enter into the high risk volcanic zone.

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You can only get in there when all is quiet and no volcanic activity is detected.

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All these images are from the abandoned capital of Plymouth.

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You have to go in with a trained operator.  The car must be parked facing the way out and the engine kept running at all times.  Pyroclastic flows can be lightning fast.  Entry has only been allowed since 2015 and permission will be withdrawn if there is more activity.

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Looking south from the old wharf.

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Government House, the residence of the Governor.

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This is how it appeared in 1915.

(By National Archives, UK – Public Domain).

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This is the Molyneaux Building, built in 1989 as the corporate office for Cable and Wireless and the Government’s Audit Department.  It was the only building built entirely of concrete and was the town’s tallest building at four stories high.

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Much of the centre of Plymouth is actually completely buried beneath the ash and debris and there have been several layers through different eruptions.

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This is the Flora Fountain Hotel, built in 1984 and named for the fountain in the middle of the circular wing you can see in the distance.

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Plymouth was evacuated in 1995, then abandoned and destroyed in 1997.

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No-one died in Plymouth itself but 19 people died further inland at Streatham Village in a pyroclastic flow in 1997, though the village was officially evacuated.

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On the left, the circular wing of the Flora Fountain hotel, the top floors.

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Top floor of the Police Station.

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This is the building behind the Flora Fountain Hotel.

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Government Building.

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After the 1997 eruption, about 7,000 people, two-thirds of the population, left Montserrat and  4,000 went to the UK.  The current population is around 5,000.

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An abandoned office.

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Many of the buildings on the hill in the background were not completely destroyed by the eruption but the whole area will be uninhabitable for many years.

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In early 1998, there was a bank robbery in the vaults of an abandoned bank in Plymouth.  The robbers made six or seven visits to the bank and got away with $US300,000.  Eight people were arrested a few months later and most convicted.  The banks at least initially would not recognise stolen notes with listed ID numbers that had become in circulation.

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Buildings above the inundation zone, still inaccessible.

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Some areas saw more than twelve metres of mud and debris.

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We visited an abandoned sugar windmill tower in Richmond Hill, just outside the exclusion zone.

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We were able to climb up and see the view.

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Just because buildings are just outside the exclusion zone does not mean they can be reoccupied.

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On the far left with the brown rooves is the Montserrat Springs Hotel, that we shall visit in the next post.

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These were once upmarket dwellings.

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(See previous post for details of the fascinating history of Montserrat).

(Trivia note:  Just passed 1,000 posts a few posts ago).

Montserrat – North and East Coast – and History

Montserrat, 23 September 2016

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This is Montserrat.  The blue lines show where we went on the island.  Above the grey line is the part of the island that is still inhabited.  Below the line is the two thirds of the island that was abandoned after volcanic eruptions from 1995 to 2010 and to which access is largely prohibited due to the continuing risk of eruptions and sudden pyroclastic flows.  The grey areas are the areas covered by ash, lahars (mud) or other volcanic debris.

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This is a view from where we were staying, with the headland at Little Bay in the distance.

The earliest archaeological evidence of human presence is from around 2800 to 2700BC, in the form of a number of stone blades at Upper Blakes, in the north interior of the island.  The blades are made of chert or flint and come from Long Island, just off the north coast of Antigua.  This is the primary source of chert in the region because the rock there includes uplifted limestone as well as volcanic.  The makers of these blades appear to have probably been visitors because there is no further evidence of human activity for thousands of years afterwards.

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This is the wharf at Little Bay, now the main wharf on the island, well the only wharf on the island, following the abandonment of the former capital of Plymouth.

Settlement appears to have commenced around 500BC and the main origin of these people was the Orinoco basin in what is now Venezuela.  The two main early sites were Trants on the mid-east coast and Radio Antilles on the far south coast.  Most of the archaeological sites though were wiped out by the volcanic eruptions from 1995 to 2010.  Fragments have been found of fine thin-walled pottery from this early ceramic period (500BC to 600 AD), decorated in red on white, black on red or black and white on red.  There are more sites from the late ceramic period (600AD to European contact) but the pottery is coarser and usually not decorated.  In all eras there is evidence of trade with other islands.

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Brades Fire Station.

Allioüágana is the Amerindian name for the island.   Columbus saw it and named the island as Montserrat in 1493 but did not land.

The conventional view has been that Montserrat was uninhabited at the time of European arrival and an Amerindian woman from Guadeloupe told Columbus the inhabitants were driven out, probably in relatively recent times, by Carib raiders.  It appears that there were no large villages on Montserrat at this time but there were inhabitants, as attested by early Dutch and French reports.  Some middens from a site in the north-west of the island also contain European trade goods.

Amerindians appear to have been living in Montserrat until at least the early eighteenth though most of the references to Amerindians in the late seventeenth century were to raids by Caribs from elsewhere.

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Lookout Yard Sugar Mill, built in 1921.

A group of English appear to have settled in Montserrat for three months in 1629 following a Spanish invasion of St Kitts but only stayed for three months.   Permanent settlement started in 1632 with a group of Irish Catholics who were joined after a few years by English Protestants.  Initially the economy was based on the cultivation of tobacco and indigo and there were no slaves.  Slavery was increasingly adopted along with a shift to a plantation cotton economy after 1650.   Black slaves came to be the great majority of the population.

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Inside of the mill.  It was destroyed by a hurricane in 1928 and rebuilt.

In the 1650s, the population was 600 or 700 and predominantly Irish.  Due to slavery, the black proportion increased over the years.  Overall population and proportion of black slaves increased as follows:  1671: 1,700  (31%); 1678:  3,700  (27%);  1707:  5,115 (70%).  The white population nearly halved from 1678 to 1707 due to white indentured servants leaving and being replaced by black slaves.  It then became:  1729: 7,000 (84%);  1788:  11,600 (89%) (peak population); 1805: 10,800 (91%); 1828:  7,400 (96%);  1834:  6,200 (95%);  1851:  7,100 (98%).  Slavery was abolished in 1834 and by 1851 the white population had fallen by more than 50% to 150.  The population in 1994 was 13,000 of whom 8,000 left the island following the eruption.  Current population is 5,400 and in 2011 the ethnic distribution was Black 88%, mixed 4%, Hispanic 3%, Caucasian 3%, East Indian 2%, other 1%.

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Looks like a steam boiler, out the back of the mill.

In the 1678 census nearly 69% of the population self-identified as Irish and since there were 27% black slaves, only 4% were English or other.  There were three groups of Irish.  There was the Anglo-Irish elite and then there was the poor farmers, labourers and indentured servants.  There were two sections of the Anglo-Irish elite as well.  There were the older group, dating back to Norman settlement of Ireland, Catholic and with much in common with the Irish workers.  The younger group derived from Elizabethan or Stuart settlement of Ireland, were Protestant and had more in common with the English.  None of the Irish were slaves but they nonetheless could be treated brutally.  The treatment of black slaves though could be worse.  For example, in 1771 a black slave was found not guilty of stealing a board and whipped through town anyway.

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Another corner of the mill’s back yard.

From 1750, the proportion of mixed race people and freed slaves gradually increased.  For example, in 1828, six years before the abolition of slavery, while 96% of the population was black, that comprised 85% slaves and 11% free.

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Looking north across Marguerita Bay on the east coast of the island.

Montserrat was attacked fifteen times between 1650 and 1712 by French, Dutch, Caribs and pirates – specifically 1650, 1665, 1666/67, 1672, 1674, 1676, 1682, 1693, 1697, 1702, 1707, 1710, 1711, 1711 and 1712.

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Some of the houses built for people displaced from the south of the island, largely financed by British money.

The French and their Carib allies captured Montserrat from February 1666 to July 1667 during the Second Anglo-Dutch War.  They took the Governor and 200 settlers prisoner and burned English dwellings, warehouses and sugar mills.  They also removed from the island slaves, cannon, horses and cattle.  The only group not targeted were those Irish who took an oath of loyalty to the French.

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We are driving as far south as we can go on the east coast of the island, towards Trant’s in the distance.

Sugar had come to be the main industry and by the time of the 1666 invasion, there were 40 sugar mills on the island, increasingly relying on African slaves.

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There was a settlement here at Trant’s but it was covered by the eruption in 2010 and the coastline extended by 650 metres.

Following the deposal of James II in England in 1688, Montserrat was often neglected by England due to the large Irish Catholic element in the population.

Montserrat was invaded and sacked again by the French for a few months in 1712 during the War of the Spanish Succession.  Again they burned properties and sugar estates and removed slaves, equipment, livestock and provisions.  Stapletown, one of the first settlements, was never rebuilt.  The eighteenth century after 1712 was the peak period for the dominant sugar industry, dependent on black slaves.

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Perhaps the only local resident.

Montserrat is also susceptible to hurricanes which on occasion have damaged or destroyed almost all buildings on the island.    There were for example such severe hurricanes in 1737, 1747, 1766 and 1772.

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The edge of the new coastline.

In 1782, during the War of American independence, the French invaded again and stayed for two years.  Initially they burned buildings and crops on sugar estates but there were some benefits for the locals since while the British had generally neglected their colony, the French Governor was relatively liberal, paved the roads of the main streets, improved public buildings and allowed trade with North America.

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The boiling house smoke stack at Trant’s sugar mill and the top of the windmill tower.  It had been fertile, flat land and there was an Indian village here for thousands of years until European settlement.

Montserrat is the only country outside Ireland to celebrate St Patrick’s Day, although this also commemorates an unsuccessful slave revolt on that day in 1768.  Slavery was abolished in 1834 and cotton became uneconomic, creating problems for the economy in general but not necessarily for former slaves.  Irish Gaelic was spoken by descendants of slaves as recently as the early 20th century.

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Some buildings on a ridge, not completely buried.

The years after emancipation were years of particular hardship.  The sugar industry had been declining for many years and had collapsed, most of the white population left, only 1.5% of the population was literate, and the government was incompetent and repressive, continuing to try to implement slavery-era laws that were now illegal in the British Empire.  Attempts to find substitutes for sugar were not successful until 1850 with the introduction of citrus lime production.  The late 19th century became a time of prosperity and Montserrat lime juice gained an international reputation.  The British Navy adopted Montserrat lime as an additive to grog (watered-down rum) and thereby earned British sailors then name of “limeys”.  The lime industry was wiped out by blight and the hurricane of 1899 though.  It was replaced by cotton from 1903.  These days most economic activity is in tourism and services.

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And in the distance, the volcano.

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(Main source for the history:  An Archaeological History of Montserrat, West Indies, Cherry and Ryzewski, Google Books download).

Antigua – Fort Berkeley and Shirley Heights

English Harbour, Antigua, 19 September 2016

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In the afternoon, we walk past Nelson’s Dockyard to visit Fort Berkeley.

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Probably an eighteenth century ship’s anchor.

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Looking back across the harbour at the marina.

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Fort Berkeley, but from a distance.

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This is the same view with a wide angle lens.

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The fort is quite small but this is evidently all that was needed with such a narrow mouth to the harbour.

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In the distance in the middle horizon is Shirley Heights, with another former military emplacement that we shall visit soon.

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The last cannon left of twenty-nine.

The British were in Antigua from 1632 and English Harbour from 1704.  This was the best harbour in the islands of the eastern Caribbean.  Enclosed by hills, it was protected against hurricanes so the British were able to shelter here whereas the French had to send their ships back during the hurricane season.  All the other islands changed hands several times but the French never captured Antigua.

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Looking across to Galleon Beach.

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Either a storehouse or a guard house.

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The sheltered stone steps leading up to the building on the right suggest that it was a store house supplied by sea, perhaps primarily for ammunition.

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Passing by Nelson’s Dockyard again.  Didn’t need to make a phone call.

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We are now on the heights at the other side of the harbour, at Dow’s Hill, where there is the remains of a large barracks.

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A view of the spectacular coastline nearby.

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Cacti and the sea.

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Looking towards Shirley Heights, where we head next.

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View from Shirley Heights.

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The Royal Military Guard House at Shirley Heights (named after Sir Thomas Shirley, Governor of the Leeward Islands in the late eighteenth century).  There were four cannon on a platform beside the building and a signal post above it.

There is a restaurant that can open here and a brass band that plays on Sundays.  But we weren’t told about that when we arrived the previous night so either it had finished or more probably it wasn’t happening because we were there in the off season.

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Remains of a cannon.  I wonder if it shattered in anger.  Underneath the crown is GR for George Rex, which doesn’t tell us much because it could be George I, II or III and is therefore between 1716 and 1820.  It’s clearly not an American cannon and therefore doesn’t relate to their George I (1789-1797), George II (1989-1993) or George III (2001-2009).

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A view looking north towards Indian Creek, Stand Fast Point and Mamora Bay.

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Close by the Guard Station is the remains of another barracks.

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Antigua, Architecture, English Harbour, Fish, Landscape, Nature, Photography, Street photography, Travel, Wildlife .

Antigua, Architecture, English Harbour, Fish, Landscape, Nature, Photography, Street photography, Travel, Wildlife .

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Back now at our accommodation in English Harbour, as the evening slowly descends.

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Around St Martin

St Martin, Sint Maarten, 16 September 2016

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Anse Marcel, Architecture, Fort Louis, Grand Case, Guana Bay, History, Landscape, Le Galion, Orient Bay, Photography, Rotary Bay, Sint Maarten, St Martin, Street photography, Travel

On our first full day on St Martin we circumnavigated the island, starting from our accommodation near Grand Case.

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And here we are at Grand Case, looking north from the beach.

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This is looking south along the beach, from about the same place.

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As you can see, it had the feel of a charming village and was the gastronomic centre of St Martin and Sint Maarten.

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An old house in need of restoration.

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From the beach.

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Anguilla in the background.

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It must now be much changed, first devastated by Hurricane Irma, which passed directly over  a year later, and now presumably largely closed down by CIVID-19.

Here is a link to a French Government video showing the devastation of the hurricane over Grand Case.  Maximise it to full screen to run it otherwise it will be very small.

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Here we are a bit further north at Anse Marcel, essentially a self contained resort.  No shops or eateries that we could see but beaches are public and Jools went for a swim.

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Lizard and hibiscus flower on the beach.  Not set up..

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Looking back at Anse Marcel from the road out.

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We stopped off near Cul de Sac Bay to find a view.  Saint Barthélemy is in the background.  It separated from Guadeloupe in 2003 to form a separate French Overseas Collectivity.

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An egret at the water’s edge.

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We are a bit further on at Orient Bay.

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It was a bit too tourist-focused for us so we kept on going.

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Anse Marcel, Architecture, Fort Louis, Grand Case, Guana Bay, History, Landscape, Le Galion, Orient Bay, Photography, Rotary Bay, Sint Maarten, St Martin, Street photography, Travel

We found a nice quiet place for a swim at Le Galion.

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Not far past Le Galion, we are at Rotary Point.

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Now more toward the south west corner of the island, looking over Guana Bay (at the left).  We are now in Sint Maarten.

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An abandoned mansion, that may have been wiped out by a previous hurricane.

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Meeting some of the locals.

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A view over the commercial centre of Philipsburg.

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We are now back in St Martin at Fort Louis, near Marigot, built in 1797 by local subscription (since there were no local taxes).

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In July 1808 the fort, defended by 28 men was attacked by about 200 men from a British squadron.  They were after the stocks of coffee that the knew to be in the port.  This did not go well for the British.  Seven including one of the Captains were killed, 18 severely wounded and 140 captured.  And they didn’t get any coffee.

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A wreck somewhat more recent that 1808.

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Arawak Indians settled the island about 3,500 years ago and Carib Indians displaced them more recently.  Following their arrival in the region, the Spanish didn’t bother to colonise and the Dutch were the first to settle in 1631.  French and British outposts quickly sprang up but the Spanish arrived and threw them all out in 1633.  However the Spanish deserted the island in 1648 and both Dutch and French returned.  They quickly realised there was no point in a war and agreed to divided the island between them.

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Anse Marcel, Architecture, Fort Louis, Grand Case, Guana Bay, History, Landscape, Le Galion, Orient Bay, Photography, Rotary Bay, Sint Maarten, St Martin, Street photography, Travel

Back at our lodgings again, looking over Grand Case.

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Santo Domingo Monochromes

12-14 September 2016, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic

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Links go to posts with the colour versions of the images (where there may also be more information and context). If an image does not have a link, the preceding one applies. (Click on any image to see it larger).

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Art vendor in the centre of the old city.

Catedral Primada de America.

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Around the block from the Cathedral.

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Inside the Cathedral.

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Museo Casa de Tostado.

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A statue of Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo y Valdés in front of the Tower of Homage.

Fortaleza Ozama.

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Architecture, Art, Black and White, Cars, Dominican Republic, History, Landscape, Monochrome, Photography, Santo Domingo, Street photography, Travel .

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This vehicle was parked in the street right outside where we were staying, in the centre of the old city.

Wandering in Santo Domingo.

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Iglesia de Nuestra Señora de las Mercedes or the Church of Our Lady of the Mercedes.

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Calle Hostos.

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Monasterio de San Francisco.

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Alcázar de Colón.

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Museo de las Casas Reales.

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Edges of the Old City.

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Edges of the Old City (Santo Domingo)

Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, 14 September 2016

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Stepping out from the Museo de las Casas Reales, we encounter a driver with horse and cart, eager to take us for a ride (though we continued on foot).  You may need to click on the image to see it properly but towards the top right is a very old street sign.  I wouldn’t be surprised if it is from the early sixteenth century.

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Walking along the street the horse and cart came from, this is Hostal Nicolas de Ovando, a four star hotel.

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I know approximately where this is but not what it is.  Perhaps an old monastery.

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This is Iglesia de Nuestra Senora del Carmen, attached to Iglesia de los Dominicos, or the Dominican Convent.

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This is a statue of Ingenio Maria del Hostos.  He was a Puerto Rican intellectual who agitated for the independence of Puerto Rico and Cuba at the turn of the twentieth century.  (Instead, they were colonised by the United States).  He ended up living in Santo Domingo.  We are probably in Parque Duarte.

 

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A charming side street.

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An overgrown ruin.  I think, a former religious building.

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The white building bears the sign Fundación Virgen Del Perpetuo Socorro Inc, so I can tell we are in Calle 19 de Marzo, or 19th March Street.  19th March 1844 was the date when an invading Haitian army was defeated in battle.

 

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We are down by the river now and this is Frey Antonio de Ovando.  What can he be shouting out?  Get out of the river?  How do I find my way back to Hostal Nicolas de Ovando?  Help, I’ve got a plant growing on my back and a lightbulb implanted in my head?

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No, it’s Help!  I have a cannon pointed at me!

There could be a reason for that.  He arrived with thirty ships in 1502, became Governor, treated the Indians with great brutality and was recalled for that reason in 1509.

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An ancient door and facade of a religious institution.

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The lizard doorknocker!

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Somewhere around here, a man in dreadlocks appeared and told us it was not safe to walk in this area with cameras, and also invited us to his restaurant that night.

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This is La Puerta del Conde, now the main entrance to El Parque Nacional or Independence Park..

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Some of the detail is interesting.  The statue of the soldier (probably an independence leader).  The soldiers in the shadows at the left.  The cannon pointing down the street.

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We are now in the Altar de la Patria, a mausoleum dedicated to the three founding fathers from the 1844 War of Independence, Juan Pablo Duarte, Francisco del Rosario Sánchez, and Ramón Matías Mella,.

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Still in the same area, we are at El Baluarte del Conde (The Count’s Bulwark), part of the City fortifications dating from 1543.

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With cannons to keep the streets safe…..

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The old and the somewhat new.

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Zonabici, sign for a bicycle rental shop near where we were staying.  This is the last image from our stay in Santo Domingo.

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Museo de las Casas Reales

Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, 14 September 2016

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Our next stop was Museo de las Casas Reales, or Museum of the Royal houses.  Built in 1511, this was the Real Audience (Royal Audience) or Royal Court of Justice, and also the Palace of the Governors and the General Captaincy until the west side of Hispaniola was ceded to France in 1799 and those functions moved to Cuba.

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These are pages from the first book written in Spanish in the Americas.  It is the navigational diaries of Christopher Columbus and the book of the privileges granted to him by the Crown.

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This must be the Santa Maria.

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The Golden Hind, Drake’s ship.

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The museum houses the history of the island from 1492 until 1821.

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The Pharmaceutical Products industry, founded in the sixteenth century, incorporated both Indian and Spanish knowledge.  It was established by a Spaniard married to an Indian named Antonio de Villa-Sante and featured a balm for many ailments derived from the guacunax tree.

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Rifles from the eighteenth to nineteenth centuries.

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Persian helmet, shield and arm guards.  Also Turkish sword.  Eighteenth to nineteenth centuries.

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Apparently a Grand Reception Hall.

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An eighteenth century warship, I’d say, but I didn’t record the label.

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Santo Domingo in 1785.

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Presumably the “throne” of the Governor.

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The portrait at the left is of Francisco de Vitoria (1486 – 1546), known for his defence of the rights of Indians against the settlers and his advocacy of the limits of justifiable warfare.

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Alcázar de Colón

Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, 14 September 2016

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On our way from Monasterio de San Francisco to Alcázar de Colón, we passed the doorway to Casa del Cordon (which is not open to the public).  It was built in the very early 16th century and is be3lieved to be the oldest stone house in the Americas.  For a period from 1509 it was home to Diego Columbus, son of Christopher and Governor at the time.

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Alcázar de Colón, Architecture, Dominican Republic, History, Landscape, Photography, Santo Domingo, Street photography, Travel .

Now we are inside Alcázar de Colón (or Castle of Columbus) which is now a museum.

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Diego Columbus moved here from Casa de Cordon after it was built.  Wikipedia says that Alcázar de Colón is the only known residence of Diego, which is clearly wrong.

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It was built between 1510 and 1514 of coral rocks, using 1,500 actually or effectively enslaved Taino Indians.

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It once had fifty-five rooms and a number of gardens and courtyards.  It now has twenty-two rooms which are open to the public.

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Alcázar de Colón, Architecture, Dominican Republic, History, Landscape, Photography, Santo Domingo, Street photography, Travel .

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The Columbus family lived here until 1577.  In 1586 Sir Francis Drake plundered it.

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Alcázar de Colón, Architecture, Dominican Republic, History, Landscape, Photography, Santo Domingo, Street photography, Travel

From the mid-eighteenth century it was abandoned and fell into ruins.

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It was restored between 1955 and 1957 although there was controversy at the time of the historical sensitivity of this project.

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Alcázar de Colón, Architecture, Dominican Republic, History, Landscape, Photography, Santo Domingo, Street photography, Travel .

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Alcázar de Colón, Architecture, Dominican Republic, History, Landscape, Photography, Santo Domingo, Street photography, Travel

The Palaza houses works of art from the 14th to 17th centuries.

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Alcázar de Colón, Architecture, Dominican Republic, History, Landscape, Photography, Santo Domingo, Street photography, Travel

The painting is presumably Christopher and Diego, and the model the Santa Maria.

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Out on the street again.

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The little metal globes on the kerb were used for the tying of horses.

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