Oregon Coast.

Oregon, 5th to 8th November 2018.
Temporary Post. Brief image descriptions and no commentary.

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Columbia River Valley, then Oregon Coast.

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Landscape, Nature, Oregon, Photography, Rainforest, seascape, Travel, USA, Waterfall, Wilderness

La Tourell Falls.

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Landscape, Nature, Oregon, Photography, Rainforest, seascape, Travel, USA, Waterfall, Wilderness

View from Vista House.

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Landscape, Nature, Oregon, Photography, Rainforest, seascape, Travel, USA, Waterfall, Wilderness

Multnomah Falls.

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Landscape, Nature, Oregon, Photography, Rainforest, seascape, Travel, USA, Waterfall, Wilderness

Foliage on cliff, Multnomah Falls.

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Landscape, Nature, Oregon, Photography, Rainforest, seascape, Travel, USA, Waterfall, Wilderness

Rainforest, Multnomah Falls.

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Landscape, Nature, Oregon, Photography, Rainforest, seascape, Travel, USA, Waterfall, Wilderness

Base of Multnomah falls.

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Landscape, Nature, Oregon, Photography, Rainforest, seascape, Travel, USA, Waterfall, Wilderness

Near Multnomah Falls.

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Landscape, Nature, Oregon, Photography, Rainforest, seascape, Travel, USA, Waterfall, Wilderness

Wreck of the Peter Iredale.

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Landscape, Nature, Oregon, Photography, Rainforest, seascape, Travel, USA, Waterfall, Wilderness .

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Landscape, Nature, Oregon, Photography, Rainforest, seascape, Travel, USA, Waterfall, Wilderness

Looking north, from the Wreck of the Peter Iredale.

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Landscape, Nature, Oregon, Photography, Rainforest, seascape, Travel, USA, Waterfall, Wilderness

Ecola State Park.

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Landscape, Nature, Oregon, Photography, Rainforest, seascape, Travel, USA, Waterfall, Wilderness

Unexpected wave, Hug Point.

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Landscape, Nature, Oregon, Photography, Rainforest, seascape, Travel, USA, Waterfall, Wilderness

Views from Neahkahnie Viewpoint.

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Landscape, Nature, Oregon, Photography, Rainforest, seascape, Travel, USA, Waterfall, Wilderness .

Landscape, Nature, Oregon, Photography, Rainforest, seascape, Travel, USA, Waterfall, Wilderness

Rainforest near Castle Rock.

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Landscape, Nature, Oregon, Photography, Rainforest, seascape, Travel, USA, Waterfall, Wilderness

Coast view south of Nestucca Bay.

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Landscape, Nature, Oregon, Photography, Rainforest, seascape, Travel, USA, Waterfall, Wilderness

Yaquina Head Lighthouse.

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Landscape, Nature, Oregon, Photography, Rainforest, seascape, Travel, USA, Waterfall, Wilderness

Heceta Head Lighthouse (and next two images).

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Landscape, Nature, Oregon, Photography, Rainforest, seascape, Travel, USA, Waterfall, Wilderness .

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Landscape, Nature, Oregon, Photography, Rainforest, seascape, Travel, USA, Waterfall, Wilderness .

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Landscape, Nature, Oregon, Photography, Rainforest, seascape, Travel, USA, Waterfall, Wilderness

Views from Kronenberg County Park, Bandon .

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Landscape, Nature, Oregon, Photography, Rainforest, seascape, Travel, USA, Waterfall, Wilderness

Bandon South Jetty.

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Landscape, Nature, Oregon, Photography, Rainforest, seascape, Travel, USA, Waterfall, Wilderness

Somewhere north of Crescent City.

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Landscape, Nature, Oregon, Photography, Rainforest, seascape, Travel, USA, Waterfall, Wilderness

Redwoods, perhaps Del Norte Coast Redwoods State Park.

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Landscape, Nature, Oregon, Photography, Rainforest, seascape, Travel, USA, Waterfall, Wilderness

Willits street scene, Paradise burning 100km away.

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Landscape, Nature, Oregon, Photography, Rainforest, seascape, Travel, USA, Waterfall, Wilderness

Golden Gate with Paradise smoke haze.

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That was the last of the temporary posts from trip to Uzbekistan, Istanbul, Athens, Thira, Crete, Andalusia. Barcelona, Washington and Oregon.  Next I have three miscellaneous posts, then I will continue with final posts for Cuba and the Caribbean, starting with Cuba.  After that, unhbless something else intervenes, I shall make final posts for the Uzbekistan trip.

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Washington Day 1.

Olympic National Park, Washington State, USA, 31st October to 1st November 2018.
Temporary Post. Brief image descriptions and no commentary.

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Architecture, Lake Quinault, Landscape, Nature, Photography, Rainforest, Ruby Beach, Travel, USA, Washington, Waterfall, Wilderness, Wildlife

Most of this post is a journey around Lake Quinault in Olympic National Park, Washington State, going for a few walks and visiting a few waterfalls.

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Architecture, Lake Quinault, Landscape, Nature, Photography, Rainforest, Ruby Beach, Travel, USA, Washington, Waterfall, Wilderness, Wildlife .

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Architecture, Lake Quinault, Landscape, Nature, Photography, Rainforest, Ruby Beach, Travel, USA, Washington, Waterfall, Wilderness, Wildlife .

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Architecture, Lake Quinault, Landscape, Nature, Photography, Rainforest, Ruby Beach, Travel, USA, Washington, Waterfall, Wilderness, Wildlife .

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Architecture, Lake Quinault, Landscape, Nature, Photography, Rainforest, Ruby Beach, Travel, USA, Washington, Waterfall, Wilderness, Wildlife .

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Architecture, Lake Quinault, Landscape, Nature, Photography, Rainforest, Ruby Beach, Travel, USA, Washington, Waterfall, Wilderness, Wildlife .

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Architecture, Lake Quinault, Landscape, Nature, Photography, Rainforest, Ruby Beach, Travel, USA, Washington, Waterfall, Wilderness, Wildlife .

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Architecture, Lake Quinault, Landscape, Nature, Photography, Rainforest, Ruby Beach, Travel, USA, Washington, Waterfall, Wilderness, Wildlife .

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Architecture, Lake Quinault, Landscape, Nature, Photography, Rainforest, Ruby Beach, Travel, USA, Washington, Waterfall, Wilderness, Wildlife .

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Architecture, Lake Quinault, Landscape, Nature, Photography, Rainforest, Ruby Beach, Travel, USA, Washington, Waterfall, Wilderness, Wildlife .

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Architecture, Lake Quinault, Landscape, Nature, Photography, Rainforest, Ruby Beach, Travel, USA, Washington, Waterfall, Wilderness, Wildlife .

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Architecture, Lake Quinault, Landscape, Nature, Photography, Rainforest, Ruby Beach, Travel, USA, Washington, Waterfall, Wilderness, Wildlife .

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Architecture, Lake Quinault, Landscape, Nature, Photography, Rainforest, Ruby Beach, Travel, USA, Washington, Waterfall, Wilderness, Wildlife .

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Architecture, Lake Quinault, Landscape, Nature, Photography, Rainforest, Ruby Beach, Travel, USA, Washington, Waterfall, Wilderness, Wildlife .

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Architecture, Lake Quinault, Landscape, Nature, Photography, Rainforest, Ruby Beach, Travel, USA, Washington, Waterfall, Wilderness, Wildlife .

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Architecture, Lake Quinault, Landscape, Nature, Photography, Rainforest, Ruby Beach, Travel, USA, Washington, Waterfall, Wilderness, Wildlife .

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Architecture, Lake Quinault, Landscape, Nature, Photography, Rainforest, Ruby Beach, Travel, USA, Washington, Waterfall, Wilderness, Wildlife .

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Architecture, Lake Quinault, Landscape, Nature, Photography, Rainforest, Ruby Beach, Travel, USA, Washington, Waterfall, Wilderness, Wildlife .

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Architecture, Lake Quinault, Landscape, Nature, Photography, Rainforest, Ruby Beach, Travel, USA, Washington, Waterfall, Wilderness, Wildlife

Now we’re on the road north.  This is Ruby Beach.

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Architecture, Lake Quinault, Landscape, Nature, Photography, Rainforest, Ruby Beach, Travel, USA, Washington, Waterfall, Wilderness, Wildlife .

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Architecture, Lake Quinault, Landscape, Nature, Photography, Rainforest, Ruby Beach, Travel, USA, Washington, Waterfall, Wilderness, Wildlife .

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Architecture, Lake Quinault, Landscape, Nature, Photography, Rainforest, Ruby Beach, Travel, USA, Washington, Waterfall, Wilderness, Wildlife .

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Architecture, Lake Quinault, Landscape, Nature, Photography, Rainforest, Ruby Beach, Travel, USA, Washington, Waterfall, Wilderness, Wildlife

This last image is on the road in to Hoh Rain Forest, which as it happened was closed that day.

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Ice Monochromes (Hemis N.P.)

24 to 30 January 2018, Hemis National Park, Ladakh.

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(Ladakh Trip).

Links go to posts with the colour versions of the images (where there may also be more information). If an image does not have a link (or a caption), the preceding one applies.

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This post shows details of ice in Hemis National Park. In most cases, captions are superfluous.

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Abstract, Black and White, Buddhism, Hemis National Park, Ice, India, Ladakh, Landscape, Macro, Monochrome, Nature, Photography, Tibet, Waterfall, Wilderness

A bank of ice around a gravel bar in the Indus River.

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Abstract, Black and White, Buddhism, Hemis National Park, Ice, India, Ladakh, Landscape, Macro, Monochrome, Nature, Photography, Tibet, Waterfall, Wilderness

A frozen waterfall between out first camp and the village of Rumbak.

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Abstract, Black and White, Buddhism, Hemis National Park, Ice, India, Ladakh, Landscape, Macro, Monochrome, Nature, Photography, Tibet, Waterfall, Wilderness .

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Abstract, Black and White, Buddhism, Hemis National Park, Ice, India, Ladakh, Landscape, Macro, Monochrome, Nature, Photography, Tibet, Waterfall, Wilderness

Frozen rapids in the river.

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Abstract, Black and White, Buddhism, Hemis National Park, Ice, India, Ladakh, Landscape, Macro, Monochrome, Nature, Photography, Tibet, Waterfall, Wilderness

Views of the frozen river.

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Abstract, Black and White, Buddhism, Hemis National Park, Ice, India, Ladakh, Landscape, Macro, Monochrome, Nature, Photography, Tibet, Waterfall, Wilderness .

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Abstract, Black and White, Buddhism, Hemis National Park, Ice, India, Ladakh, Landscape, Macro, Monochrome, Nature, Photography, Tibet, Waterfall, Wilderness .

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Abstract, Black and White, Buddhism, Hemis National Park, Ice, India, Ladakh, Landscape, Macro, Monochrome, Nature, Photography, Tibet, Waterfall, Wilderness

Exploring the frozen river with a macro lens.

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Abstract, Black and White, Buddhism, Hemis National Park, Ice, India, Ladakh, Landscape, Macro, Monochrome, Nature, Photography, Tibet, Waterfall, Wilderness .

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Abstract, Black and White, Buddhism, Hemis National Park, Ice, India, Ladakh, Landscape, Macro, Monochrome, Nature, Photography, Tibet, Waterfall, Wilderness .

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Abstract, Black and White, Buddhism, Hemis National Park, Ice, India, Ladakh, Landscape, Macro, Monochrome, Nature, Photography, Tibet, Waterfall, Wilderness .

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Abstract, Black and White, Buddhism, Hemis National Park, Ice, India, Ladakh, Landscape, Macro, Monochrome, Nature, Photography, Tibet, Waterfall, Wilderness .

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Abstract, Black and White, Buddhism, Hemis National Park, Ice, India, Ladakh, Landscape, Macro, Monochrome, Nature, Photography, Tibet, Waterfall, Wilderness .

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Abstract, Black and White, Buddhism, Hemis National Park, Ice, India, Ladakh, Landscape, Macro, Monochrome, Nature, Photography, Tibet, Waterfall, Wilderness .

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Abstract, Black and White, Buddhism, Hemis National Park, Ice, India, Ladakh, Landscape, Macro, Monochrome, Nature, Photography, Tibet, Waterfall, Wilderness

More details of the frozen river.

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Abstract, Black and White, Buddhism, Hemis National Park, Ice, India, Ladakh, Landscape, Macro, Monochrome, Nature, Photography, Tibet, Waterfall, Wilderness .

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Abstract, Black and White, Buddhism, Hemis National Park, Ice, India, Ladakh, Landscape, Macro, Monochrome, Nature, Photography, Tibet, Waterfall, Wilderness

A small plant struggling to survive though covered by the icy river.

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Cradle Lake and Russell Falls

28 to 30 August 2017, Cradle Mountain NP and Mount Field National Park, Tasmania

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After finishing the Overland Track  I picked up my partner Jools who had flown in to Launceston Airport.  We stayed near Launceston overnight and then drove to Cradle Mountain National Park.  Late that afternoon we drove to nearby Cradle Lake.

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Australia, Bennett's Wallaby, Cradle Lake, Landscape, Mt Field NP, Nature, Pademelon, Photography, Russell Falls, Tasmania, Travel, Waterfall, Wilderness, Wildlife

A Bennett’s Wallaby in the carpark is unconcerned by the passing human youngster.

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Australia, Bennett's Wallaby, Cradle Lake, Landscape, Mt Field NP, Nature, Pademelon, Photography, Russell Falls, Tasmania, Travel, Waterfall, Wilderness, Wildlife

Out in the lake, a rainbow is touching an island.

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Australia, Bennett's Wallaby, Cradle Lake, Landscape, Mt Field NP, Nature, Pademelon, Photography, Russell Falls, Tasmania, Travel, Waterfall, Wilderness, Wildlife

This is the much-photographed boatshed at Cradle Lake, built from King Billy pine by the same person as the one in Crater Lake we saw in an earlier post.

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Australia, Bennett's Wallaby, Cradle Lake, Landscape, Mt Field NP, Nature, Pademelon, Photography, Russell Falls, Tasmania, Travel, Waterfall, Wilderness, Wildlife .

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Australia, Bennett's Wallaby, Cradle Lake, Landscape, Mt Field NP, Nature, Pademelon, Photography, Russell Falls, Tasmania, Travel, Waterfall, Wilderness, Wildlife .

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Australia, Bennett's Wallaby, Cradle Lake, Landscape, Mt Field NP, Nature, Pademelon, Photography, Russell Falls, Tasmania, Travel, Waterfall, Wilderness, Wildlife

The next day, we drove via Queenstown to Mount Field National Park.  We were staying just outside the park gate and this is a nearby house.

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Australia, Bennett's Wallaby, Cradle Lake, Landscape, Mt Field NP, Nature, Pademelon, Photography, Russell Falls, Tasmania, Travel, Waterfall, Wilderness, Wildlife

We went for a brief walk in the late afternoon.  Is this animal, vegetable or mineral?  Actually, none of those.  It’s fungi, previously included under plants and now in a classification of its own.

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Australia, Bennett's Wallaby, Cradle Lake, Landscape, Mt Field NP, Nature, Pademelon, Photography, Russell Falls, Tasmania, Travel, Waterfall, Wilderness, Wildlife

Next morning we headed off to Russell Falls.  On the way we encountered this pademelon poking around in the leaf litter near the path.

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Australia, Bennett's Wallaby, Cradle Lake, Landscape, Mt Field NP, Nature, Pademelon, Photography, Russell Falls, Tasmania, Travel, Waterfall, Wilderness, Wildlife

I was handicapped here by not being able to use my ultrawide zoom, which had got too damp on the Overland Track.

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Australia, Bennett's Wallaby, Cradle Lake, Landscape, Mt Field NP, Nature, Pademelon, Photography, Russell Falls, Tasmania, Travel, Waterfall, Wilderness, Wildlife

At least I was able to use my tripod to give an impression of the water flow.

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Australia, Bennett's Wallaby, Cradle Lake, Landscape, Mt Field NP, Nature, Pademelon, Photography, Russell Falls, Tasmania, Travel, Waterfall, Wilderness, Wildlife

This one I stitched two exposures for a wide enough angle and had a lot of difficulty with spray and flare.

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Australia, Bennett's Wallaby, Cradle Lake, Landscape, Mt Field NP, Nature, Pademelon, Photography, Russell Falls, Tasmania, Travel, Waterfall, Wilderness, Wildlife

Climbing further up, a view of the falls from half-way up.

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Australia, Bennett's Wallaby, Cradle Lake, Landscape, Mt Field NP, Nature, Pademelon, Photography, Russell Falls, Tasmania, Travel, Waterfall, Wilderness, Wildlife

I was reminded here how lucky we were on the Overland Track not to have “good weather” when we were in the rainforest.  The extremes of light and shadow meant I struggled to control the exposure, even combining images with HDR.

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Overland Track Day 6: Rainforest near Du Cane Gap

26 August 2017, Overland Track (Kia Ora Hut to Bert Nichols Hut), Tasmania

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Australia, Bert Nichols Hut, Fergusson Falls, Kia Ora Hut, Landscape, Macro, Nature, Overland Track, Photography, Tasmania, Travel, Waterfall, Wilderness

This is a day of walking through the rainforest.  Here we have a small river cascading down towards the Mersey River, which runs parallel to the track though not very close.  Taken from a bridge over the river on the track.

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Australia, Bert Nichols Hut, Fergusson Falls, Kia Ora Hut, Landscape, Macro, Nature, Overland Track, Photography, Tasmania, Travel, Waterfall, Wilderness

It’s misty here, perhaps some rain, but overall the day was fine.  In the late afternoon we could see menacing clouds ahead but it didn’t affect us that day.

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Australia, Bert Nichols Hut, Fergusson Falls, Kia Ora Hut, Landscape, Macro, Nature, Overland Track, Photography, Tasmania, Travel, Waterfall, Wilderness .

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Australia, Bert Nichols Hut, Fergusson Falls, Kia Ora Hut, Landscape, Macro, Nature, Overland Track, Photography, Tasmania, Travel, Waterfall, Wilderness .

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Australia, Bert Nichols Hut, Fergusson Falls, Kia Ora Hut, Landscape, Macro, Nature, Overland Track, Photography, Tasmania, Travel, Waterfall, Wilderness

Du Cane Hut.

Built in 1910 by Patrick “Paddy” Hartnett as a basis for possum trapping operations.  It was built using King Billy pine and the large wooden structure at the near end is the chimney.    These days it is only available for day visits or as an emergency shelter.

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Australia, Bert Nichols Hut, Fergusson Falls, Kia Ora Hut, Landscape, Macro, Nature, Overland Track, Photography, Tasmania, Travel, Waterfall, Wilderness

Paddy’s wife planted native plants around the hut and presumably had a vegetable garden.

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Australia, Bert Nichols Hut, Fergusson Falls, Kia Ora Hut, Landscape, Macro, Nature, Overland Track, Photography, Tasmania, Travel, Waterfall, Wilderness

In each of the Tasmanian Walking Company huts (not the public huts and not the Du Cane hut) there is an identical array of books.  So if you start reading a book in one hut, you can keep reading it in the next.  I started reading The Black War by Nicholas Clements, the story of Tasmanian Aboriginal encounters with Europeans, and especially the war at the end of the 1820s.  I didn’t finish it on the track so I bought a copy and I highly recommend you do too.  It treats the accounts of the Aborigines and the settlers separately and shows the accounts of each in different chapters.

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Australia, Bert Nichols Hut, Fergusson Falls, Kia Ora Hut, Landscape, Macro, Nature, Overland Track, Photography, Tasmania, Travel, Waterfall, Wilderness

The first white settlement in Tasmania was in 1803.  Clements says there were only 2,000 Aborigines there at that time.  They lived in several tribes, spoke different languages and periodically fought with other tribes.  The main unit was the family group but they occasionally had meetings with larger groups including other tribes for purposes including match-making.

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Australia, Bert Nichols Hut, Fergusson Falls, Kia Ora Hut, Landscape, Macro, Nature, Overland Track, Photography, Tasmania, Travel, Waterfall, Wilderness

Initially British settlement was convicts but before long there was a settlement in Hobart, then Launceston and gradually spreading out into the countryside.  There could be free settlers who might have convicts working for them, there were freed convicts and escaped convicts and for a while, bushrangers (outlaws).  Initially there was not much agriculture and the Europeans competed with the Aborigines in hunting game such as Bennett’s wallabies and grey kangaroos.  Gradually they claimed land for farms and occupied Aboriginal hunting grounds and water supplies.  It wasn’t so much that there was a systematic policy to exterminate the Aborigines but Tasmania is a small island and ultimately there was nowhere for them to go.

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Australia, Bert Nichols Hut, Fergusson Falls, Kia Ora Hut, Landscape, Macro, Nature, Overland Track, Photography, Tasmania, Travel, Waterfall, Wilderness

Colonial authorities were often solicitous of Aboriginal welfare at least in theory, though settlement undermined Aboriginal society, violence on the frontier was outside the control of the authorities and no white person was ever arrested for killing an Aborigine in Tasmania.  There could be unprovoked murderous violence against Aborigines, and women and children could be kidnapped (though they usually escaped).  Aborigines could also kill whites and retribution for that could be disproportionate and misplaced.

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Australia, Bert Nichols Hut, Fergusson Falls, Kia Ora Hut, Landscape, Macro, Nature, Overland Track, Photography, Tasmania, Travel, Waterfall, Wilderness

For the first twenty years, the Europeans that Aboriginals killed were often specific people who had wronged them.  Then the central and eastern tribes gradually realised that their whole way of life was becoming untenable and each effectively declared war on all whites.  In 1824 there were maybe 1,000 Aborigines and declining as compared to say 14,000 Europeans and rapidly rising.  From 1824 to 1831 around 281 colonists and 600 Aborigines died violently.  For the Aborigines this was a huge proportion of their population.  The fighting was much more intense than in other parts of Australia and the Aborigines provided very effective resistance.   They went down fighting, even well past the point when they could see that they could no longer win.

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Australia, Bert Nichols Hut, Fergusson Falls, Kia Ora Hut, Landscape, Macro, Nature, Overland Track, Photography, Tasmania, Travel, Waterfall, Wilderness

The Aborigines only attacked in daylight using spears and clubs.  This was not because they were unable to obtain or use muskets but muskets were single shot and slow to reload and they found spears more effective.  The settlers couldn’t find them in daylight so they tracked them down by their fires at night.  Traditionally, the Aborigines kept warm at night by covering their skins with a mixture of animal fat and ochre and huddling around the fire.  As conflict intensified, the animal fat and ochre was harder to find and the fires had to be kept small and discrete.  They might have blankets but these were of no use when they were wet.

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Australia, Bert Nichols Hut, Fergusson Falls, Kia Ora Hut, Landscape, Macro, Nature, Overland Track, Photography, Tasmania, Travel, Waterfall, Wilderness

In 1831 there was an almost comical display of incompetence by the colonial authorities.  They attempted to throw a cordon around an area of the south east, tighten it and trap all the Aborigines left inside.  They did stumble on a camp early on and kill two and capture two but other than that the Aborigines had no trouble slipping through the cordon.  The Black Line used all available troops, as many volunteers as they could muster and large amounts of resources.  But the authorities had no idea how rugged the country was, they were unable to supply most parties most of the time and it was a fiasco from the start.

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Australia, Bert Nichols Hut, Fergusson Falls, Kia Ora Hut, Landscape, Macro, Nature, Overland Track, Photography, Tasmania, Travel, Waterfall, Wilderness

Numbers killed reached a peak in 1830, even as Aboriginal numbers continued to decline catastrophically.  In 1830 and 1831, George Augustus Robinson went around the tribes and persuaded them to surrender.  They would be taken to Flinders Island and were promised they wold be able to go back to their lands when the war was over.  There were just 200 of them left and the promise that they could return to their lands was always a lie.

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Australia, Bert Nichols Hut, Fergusson Falls, Kia Ora Hut, Landscape, Macro, Nature, Overland Track, Photography, Tasmania, Travel, Waterfall, Wilderness

Probably the most extreme depredations on the Aborigines were in the north west, at the hands of the Van Diemen’s Land Company.  The Company arrived there in 1826 so violence occurred much later, lasting from 1827 to 1842.  Little is documented but the person who was effectively chief law officer was a psychotic killer and by the end of 1842 there were no Aborigines left.

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Australia, Bert Nichols Hut, Fergusson Falls, Kia Ora Hut, Landscape, Macro, Nature, Overland Track, Photography, Tasmania, Travel, Waterfall, Wilderness

On the north and east coasts, sealers had had contact with coastal Aborigines from as early as 1798.  At first they traded with them, including bartering for sexual favours. After a while they turned to abducting Aboriginal women, taking them to Bass Strait islands where the tribe could not follow and often holding them as though slaves.  In November 1830, there were only 74 Aborigines left on Flinders Island of whom only three were women.  At the same time, the sealers held 70 Aboriginal women.  Robinson started arranging transfers of women to Flinders Island in late 1830 to early 1831.  Then in perhaps the cruellest twist of all, the sealers successfully petitioned the Governor that they should be able to keep their women.  The remaining Aboriginal men and women were denied a last chance to live together.

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Australia, Bert Nichols Hut, Fergusson Falls, Kia Ora Hut, Landscape, Macro, Nature, Overland Track, Photography, Tasmania, Travel, Waterfall, Wilderness

Alpine yellow gum.

For many years it was said that there were no surviving Aborigines in Tasmania but this is not true.  24,000 Tasmanians identified as indigenous in the 2016 census, nearly 5% of the Tasmanian population.  They are all descended from the women kidnapped by the sealers.

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Australia, Bert Nichols Hut, Fergusson Falls, Kia Ora Hut, Landscape, Macro, Nature, Overland Track, Photography, Tasmania, Travel, Waterfall, Wilderness

Fergusson Falls.

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Australia, Bert Nichols Hut, Fergusson Falls, Kia Ora Hut, Landscape, Macro, Nature, Overland Track, Photography, Tasmania, Travel, Waterfall, Wilderness

No shortage of water going through.

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Australia, Bert Nichols Hut, Fergusson Falls, Kia Ora Hut, Landscape, Macro, Nature, Overland Track, Photography, Tasmania, Travel, Waterfall, Wilderness

From Fergusson Falls, we head west towards Du Cane Gap.  If you instead head east along the Mersey River, you go through a valley called The Never Never.  This would lead you to Junction Lake in Walls of Jerusalem National Park.  There are no tracks (until the other side of Junction Lake) and no ferry across the Mersey, so by the sounds of the name this must be a particularly rough and wild place to venture.

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Australia, Bert Nichols Hut, Fergusson Falls, Kia Ora Hut, Landscape, Macro, Nature, Overland Track, Photography, Tasmania, Travel, Waterfall, Wilderness

Clearly it’s been raining and the alpine yellow gum is glistening resplendently.

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Australia, Bert Nichols Hut, Fergusson Falls, Kia Ora Hut, Landscape, Macro, Nature, Overland Track, Photography, Tasmania, Travel, Waterfall, Wilderness .

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Australia, Bert Nichols Hut, Fergusson Falls, Kia Ora Hut, Landscape, Macro, Nature, Overland Track, Photography, Tasmania, Travel, Waterfall, Wilderness .

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Overland Track Day 5: Kia Ora Falls

24 August 2017, Overland Track (Kia Ora Hut (Rest Day)), Tasmania

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Australia, Cathedral Mountain, Landscape, Macro, Nature, Overland Track, Pelion Hut, Photography, Tasmania, Travel, Waterfall, Wilderness

Today was a rest day at Kia Ora Hut and in the afternoon we went for an excursion to nearby Kia Ora waterfall, scrambling over the buttongrass and sometimes sinking deep into the spaces between the clumps.

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Australia, Cathedral Mountain, Landscape, Macro, Nature, Overland Track, Pelion Hut, Photography, Tasmania, Travel, Waterfall, Wilderness

This was finally an opportunity to use the tripod so the first three and last three images in this post were taken using the tripod.

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Australia, Cathedral Mountain, Landscape, Macro, Nature, Overland Track, Pelion Hut, Photography, Tasmania, Travel, Waterfall, Wilderness

Rapids below the waterfall.

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Australia, Cathedral Mountain, Landscape, Macro, Nature, Overland Track, Pelion Hut, Photography, Tasmania, Travel, Waterfall, Wilderness

Trees with lichen near the waterfall.

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Australia, Cathedral Mountain, Landscape, Macro, Nature, Overland Track, Pelion Hut, Photography, Tasmania, Travel, Waterfall, Wilderness

Alpine yellow gum.

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Australia, Cathedral Mountain, Landscape, Macro, Nature, Overland Track, Pelion Hut, Photography, Tasmania, Travel, Waterfall, Wilderness

Close-up of lichen on a tree.

These two images are focus stacked (combining multiple images with different points of focus) and you really have to click on one to see it larger and appreciate the depth of detail.

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Australia, Cathedral Mountain, Landscape, Macro, Nature, Overland Track, Pelion Hut, Photography, Tasmania, Travel, Waterfall, Wilderness

Lichen again, different tree.

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Australia, Cathedral Mountain, Landscape, Macro, Nature, Overland Track, Pelion Hut, Photography, Tasmania, Travel, Waterfall, Wilderness

A view from the hut verandah in late afternoon, Cathedral Mountain in the background, buttongrass moorland in the front.  A rare case of a hut with a view.

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Overland Track Day 4: Pelion Rainforest

23 August 2017, Overland Track (Pelion Plains to Kia Ora Hut), Tasmania

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The conditions had eased from the previous three days and there was less far to walk so I was able to pause more frequently to take photographs.  Consequently, this is the first of two posts for this day.
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Australia, Landscape, Nature, Overland Track, Pelion Plains, Photography, Tasmania, Travel, Waterfall, Wilderness

This is Douglas Creek Cascade, a short walk off the track.  There’s a lot of water flowing through.

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What impressed me more, though, was the view up a side channel, with this magnificent boulder in the middle.

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Australia, Landscape, Nature, Overland Track, Pelion Plains, Photography, Tasmania, Travel, Waterfall, Wilderness

We walked through a grove with many pandani.

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Australia, Landscape, Nature, Overland Track, Pelion Plains, Photography, Tasmania, Travel, Waterfall, Wilderness

Pandani (richea pandanifolia) are an endemic Tasmanian semi-alpine plant, unrelated to the similar-looking Pandanus of the tropical Pacific and South-East Asia.

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Australia, Landscape, Nature, Overland Track, Pelion Plains, Photography, Tasmania, Travel, Waterfall, Wilderness

So they look tropical but they’re a cold climate plant.

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Australia, Landscape, Nature, Overland Track, Pelion Plains, Photography, Tasmania, Travel, Waterfall, Wilderness

Apparently they can grow as high as 12 metres.

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Australia, Landscape, Nature, Overland Track, Pelion Plains, Photography, Tasmania, Travel, Waterfall, Wilderness .

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Australia, Landscape, Nature, Overland Track, Pelion Plains, Photography, Tasmania, Travel, Waterfall, Wilderness

It takes a consistently wet environment for the trees to be covered in moss and lichen.

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Australia, Landscape, Nature, Overland Track, Pelion Plains, Photography, Tasmania, Travel, Waterfall, Wilderness .

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Australia, Landscape, Nature, Overland Track, Pelion Plains, Photography, Tasmania, Travel, Waterfall, Wilderness

This tree is a natural hybrid between a King Billy Pine and a Pencil Pine.  The two are both ancient slow-growing Tasmanian trees in their own genus but related to junipers and the Californian redwood.  Some suggest the hybrid is actually a separate species.

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Australia, Landscape, Nature, Overland Track, Pelion Plains, Photography, Tasmania, Travel, Waterfall, Wilderness

The one on the left is I think a King Billy Pine and the other the hybrid.

I had assumed King Billy was a reference to William IV (1830-1837) but it is to William Lanne, who died in 1869.  He was Truganini’s third husband and purportedly the last “full-blooded” male Tasmanian aborigine.  After he died, his skull was stolen by surgeon William Crowther (who later became Premier of Tasmania) and may have ended up in Edinburgh.  The scandal led to the Anatomy Act of 1869 which established that any “medical experiments” required prior permission of the deceased person or permission from their relatives.

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Australia, Landscape, Nature, Overland Track, Pelion Plains, Photography, Tasmania, Travel, Waterfall, Wilderness

A family of Pandani.

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Australia, Landscape, Nature, Overland Track, Pelion Plains, Photography, Tasmania, Travel, Waterfall, Wilderness

Rainforest with snow.

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Australia, Landscape, Nature, Overland Track, Pelion Plains, Photography, Tasmania, Travel, Waterfall, Wilderness

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Australia, Landscape, Nature, Overland Track, Pelion Plains, Photography, Tasmania, Travel, Waterfall, Wilderness .

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Australia, Landscape, Nature, Overland Track, Pelion Plains, Photography, Tasmania, Travel, Waterfall, Wilderness

The Overland Track is part of the Tasmanian Wilderness area, that stretches from Cradle Mountain down to the south coast and the Maatsuyker Group.  It is a World Heritage area and has been since 1982.  One thousand and seven World Heritage sites are listed worldwide and nineteen in Australia.   There are ten criteria for World Heritage listing, six cultural and four natural.  The Tasmanian Wilderness satisfies seven of the ten criteria for listing.  At the time of its listing, it was the only one with so many qualifying categories.  Now there is one other with seven, Mount Taishan in China, which satisfies all six cultural criteria and one natural, whereas the Tasmanian Wilderness satisfies three cultural and all four natural.

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Australia, Landscape, Nature, Overland Track, Pelion Plains, Photography, Tasmania, Travel, Waterfall, Wilderness

The cultural criteria for the Tasmanian Wilderness’s World Heritage listing relate to Tasmanian Aboriginal activity in the area over at least thirty five thousand years (until about 1831).  This includes caves in areas south of the Overland track with tools made from stone, bone and Darwin glass (formed in the heat of meteorite impact).  There are separate caves with red ochre stencils, some areas with rock incisions and many middens on the coast. There are remains of beehive-shaped huts on the west coast and one open campsite has been found.  They didn’t always live in caves or huts but campsites in what is now rainforest are understandably elusive.

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Australia, Landscape, Nature, Overland Track, Pelion Plains, Photography, Tasmania, Travel, Waterfall, Wilderness

There were (at least) three or four different migrations to Tasmania, all when it was connected to the mainland.  At that time, there was a vast plain in what is now Bass Strait and a large lake in the middle.  14,000 years ago, rising sea levels caused the submersion of the land bridge (and around the same time, New Guinea would have separated from Queensland).  This was part of a process of withdrawal from the ice age and also led to the Alpine vegetation area over much of what is now Tasmania being replaced by rainforest.  The primary food source of the Aborigines was Bennett’s Wallaby.  They congregated in grasslands which in turn may have been partly created by aboriginal firestick farming.  They were scarce in rainforest and not easy to hunt and the Aborigines were unable to turn the rainforest back to alpine grassland.  Consequently, the Aborigines withdrew from the Tasmanian Wilderness area 12,000 years ago and did not start to reoccupy it until 4,000 years ago, initially from the coast.

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Australia, Landscape, Nature, Overland Track, Pelion Plains, Photography, Tasmania, Travel, Waterfall, Wilderness

While Bennett’s Wallaby was the main food source, groups living in areas with more rainforest would also hunt other game such as pademelon (a kind of wallaby), possums and platypus.  Those on the coast also hunted fur seals, elephant seals, various bird species, crayfish and shellfish.  It was thought that they abandoned eating scaled fish many thousands of years ago, from a tentative finding in 1963 and perhaps a misquote from Captain Cook.  This is now thought unlikely though fish was always but a small part of their diet.

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Australia, Landscape, Nature, Overland Track, Pelion Plains, Photography, Tasmania, Travel, Waterfall, Wilderness

 

The Tasmanian Wilderness area was also World Heritage listed for all four criteria.  It is an area of “exceptional natural beauty and aesthetic importance” as I hopefully demonstrate in the images in these posts.  It has outstanding examples of the geological history of the planet.  It provides outstanding examples of the development of ecosystems:  Here we are in this post walking through ancient rainforests that go back to the time of Gondwanaland.  And it is a haven for rare and threatened wildlife:  I showed a picture of a Bennett’s Wallaby earlier, other examples include Tasmanian devils, eastern quolls and the Tasmanian wedgetail eagle.

Further reading:

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