Trading Domes and Madrassahs, Bukhara

Bukhara, Uzbekistan
30 September 2018.

(Click on any image to see it in a larger size.)

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Abdulaziz-Khan Madrasah, Architecture, Bukhara, Carpets, Ceramics, History, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Trading Domes, Travel, Ulugbek Madrassah, Uzbekistan, Weaving

You can see the mass of domes ahead and to the right.  There are five Trading Domes in Bukhara and for centuries these enclosed markets protected customers from wild swings in weather.  This is Toqi Telpak Furushon (or the Cap Makes’ Bazaar).

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Abdulaziz-Khan Madrasah, Architecture, Bukhara, Carpets, Ceramics, History, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Trading Domes, Travel, Ulugbek Madrassah, Uzbekistan, Weaving

This is looking up at the largest dome.  You could see one of the “dome windows” in the previous image.

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A closer look at the centre of the inside of the dome.

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A knife making workshop.

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Looking back at Toqi Tilpak Furushon, having walked through.

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Abdulaziz-Khan Madrasah, Architecture, Bukhara, Carpets, Ceramics, History, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Trading Domes, Travel, Ulugbek Madrassah, Uzbekistan, Weaving

We’ve walked through Toqi Telpak Furushon and probably around another Trading Dome we will get to soon.  To the right there are two madrassahs facing each other.  This is Ulugbek Madrassah.

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Abdulaziz-Khan Madrasah, Architecture, Bukhara, Carpets, Ceramics, History, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Trading Domes, Travel, Ulugbek Madrassah, Uzbekistan, Weaving

The inside of Ulugbek Madrassah.

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This is the top of the arch at the entrance to Abdulaziz-Khan Madrassah and the next twelve images are inside that madrassah.

The fractal profusion of connected objects under the central arch and the three smaller “window arches” are muqarnas.  In their simplest form they can be cubes and they have a function for corner bracing, paradoxically enhanced by their profusion.  They can also take many forms including stalactite and also have aesthetic and religious associations.  The stalactite structures lead the eye upwards and speak to the connections between heaven and earth.  Their geometric complexity is also an echo of the Pythagoreans who looked upon numbers as the fundamental element of the universe and numbers were thus to them divine.  Muqarnas are a fundamental element of Islamic architecture since the eleventh century.

The two madrassahs facing each other form a single ensemble called Kosh Madrassah.  They also represent the heritage of two different dynasties, the Timurids and the Ashturkhanids.  Ulugbek Madrassah was built by Timur the Great’s grandson Ulugbek in 1420, whereas Abdulazizkhan Madrassah was built by the Emir of  Bukhara, Abdulaziz Khan in 1652. 

(So Abdulazizkhan Madrassah was built in the same period as Nicolas Focquet built Vaux-le-Vicomte in France.  He was subsequently thrown in prison by Louis XIV and Vaux-le-Vicomte used as a model for building of Versailles.  If you study them carefully, you may find some differences in architectural style between Vaux-le-Vicomte and Abdulazizkhan Madrassah.)

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This was an attic for scholars, dating back hundreds of years. I believe we are looking at shelves for books and perhaps writing materials.

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We walked up some stairs to enter here.

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A wider view of the room.

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This image and the following eight are looking up at the ceilings within the madrassah. 

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Though they are different views of the same interior they nonetheless show great variety.

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Many other instances of muqarnas are on display.

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(I’ll just let you talk to the images for a while).

. Abdulaziz-Khan Madrasah, Architecture, Bukhara, Carpets, Ceramics, History, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Trading Domes, Travel, Ulugbek Madrassah, Uzbekistan, Weaving .

. Abdulaziz-Khan Madrasah, Architecture, Bukhara, Carpets, Ceramics, History, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Trading Domes, Travel, Ulugbek Madrassah, Uzbekistan, Weaving .

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. Abdulaziz-Khan Madrasah, Architecture, Bukhara, Carpets, Ceramics, History, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Trading Domes, Travel, Ulugbek Madrassah, Uzbekistan, Weaving .

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Abdulaziz-Khan Madrasah, Architecture, Bukhara, Carpets, Ceramics, History, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Trading Domes, Travel, Ulugbek Madrassah, Uzbekistan, Weaving .

.Abdulaziz-Khan Madrasah, Architecture, Bukhara, Carpets, Ceramics, History, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Trading Domes, Travel, Ulugbek Madrassah, Uzbekistan, Weaving

Now back in the open, looking west and heading back to the nearby Trading Dome Toqi Zaragon.

There have probably been trading domes in Bukhara for as long as there has been the Silk Road but Bukhara itself has been wiped away from time to time.  For example, Genghis Kan, a hero in Mongolia but possibly the world’s most genocidal ruler, razed it to the ground in 1220.  So the five surviving trading domes are more recent than that.  Toqi Zaragon dates from 1570 while Toqi Tilpak Furushon, which we visited earlier, dates to the later sixteenth century.  Historically, the entrances to the trading domes were large enough for a fully-laden camel to pass through, though seemingly much larger these days.

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In the far background is the Kalon Mosque and the Kalon Minaret (next post).

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Inside the Trading Dome we see women weaving carpets by hand with incredible skill and meticulous attention to detail.

. Abdulaziz-Khan Madrasah, Architecture, Bukhara, Carpets, Ceramics, History, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Trading Domes, Travel, Ulugbek Madrassah, Uzbekistan, Weaving .

. Abdulaziz-Khan Madrasah, Architecture, Bukhara, Carpets, Ceramics, History, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Trading Domes, Travel, Ulugbek Madrassah, Uzbekistan, Weaving .

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. Abdulaziz-Khan Madrasah, Architecture, Bukhara, Carpets, Ceramics, History, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Trading Domes, Travel, Ulugbek Madrassah, Uzbekistan, Weaving .

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. Abdulaziz-Khan Madrasah, Architecture, Bukhara, Carpets, Ceramics, History, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Trading Domes, Travel, Ulugbek Madrassah, Uzbekistan, Weaving .

. Abdulaziz-Khan Madrasah, Architecture, Bukhara, Carpets, Ceramics, History, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Trading Domes, Travel, Ulugbek Madrassah, Uzbekistan, Weaving

You can of course buy carpets, with a huge array on offer.  You just need lots of money including for shipping it back home.

. Abdulaziz-Khan Madrasah, Architecture, Bukhara, Carpets, Ceramics, History, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Trading Domes, Travel, Ulugbek Madrassah, Uzbekistan, Weaving .

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Arrival, Bukhara

Bukhara, Uzbekistan
29-30 September 2018.

(Click on any image to see it in a larger size.)

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A truck on the road between Khiva and Bokhara. Likely advice to any pedestrians on the right side of the road – run!

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The sign at the restaurant at the left says “ШАШЛИК СОМСА КЕПСИ ТОВУҚ ЖИЗ”, or as you might have guessed “Shashlik Somsa Kepsi Chicken Jiz”.

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A dome in the late afternoon light in Bukhara.

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This looks like a sunset but the sun is well above the horizon, so it’s an exposure directly into the sun which is shining through the window in the cupola. Rather than a low light exposure, it is actually 200 ISO, 1/8,000 sec, f11.
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A little later with a cloud of birds in the distance. These two were probably taken at dinner.
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An hour later, a wedding group on the streets.
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This is above the main portal of the Nadir Divan-begi Madrasa.

It was built as a caravanserai (prosaically, if you like, a motel with camels instead of cars) but either dedicated as or later converted to a madrassah (or school, often religious) and the architecture more resembles a caravanserai than a madrassah. It was built during the reign of Imam Quli Khan (1611 to 1642, a time of prosperity and peace) and built by his Vizier Nadir Divan-begi, after whom it is named. In the image above, the sun has a face as do the serpents below him. Traditionally, Islam strongly disapproved of depiction of humans and animals but this was relaxed in the Persian-influenced world in the early seventeenth century.

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This image and the next eight are also in the Nadir Divan-begi Madrassah.
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Wall and ceiling details…..
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A silk weaver.
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Discussion of potential purchases, perhaps.
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Looking up….
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A variety of textile wonders on offer…..
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This is the ancient Magoki-Attori Mosque.
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This southern entrance dates to the 12th century and you can see the trace of carved blue majolica tiles.
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There was originally a Zoroastrian fire temple and later a Buddhist temple. The Moslem religion arrived about 650AD but its takeover was gradual. At one time both Jews and Moslems were said to have worshiped here concurrently though this may have been at different times of the day. Bukhara burnt down in 927 and the mosque was built or rebuilt at this time. It was rebuilt in the 12th century using the design of the previous mosque and restored in the 14th and 17th centuries and the 1930s and 1970s. It had to be dug out in the 1930s because over the years it had sunk below rising levels of sand.
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It is a UNESCO World Heritage site and one of the oldest mosques in central Asia.
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Carved doorway.
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Looking up in the top level, from the 1930s.
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Not far away is the foundations of an ancient structure but I can’t remember what our guide said and I can not find information on what it was.

(The edge of the Toqi Telpak Furushon Trading Dome is in the background at the far right. We go there in the next post.)
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