Blue Mosque and Basilica Cistern

Istanbul, 8 October 2018.

(Click on any image to see it in a larger size, if you are on a PC at least.)

.

Architecture, Art, Basilica Cistern, Blue Mosque, Constantinople, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel

Looking up at one of the side domes.

In the morning of our second day in Istanbul, we visited the Blue Mosque, constructed between 1609 and 1616.

. Architecture, Art, Basilica Cistern, Blue Mosque, Constantinople, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel

A wider view.

The Blue Mosque was built on the foundations of the Great Palace of the East Roman Empire, though the palace was massive, much larger than the mosque.

. Architecture, Art, Basilica Cistern, Blue Mosque, Constantinople, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel

Recent structure inside the mosque.

. Architecture, Art, Basilica Cistern, Blue Mosque, Constantinople, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel

I actually found the Blue Mosque disappointing, as I was expecting much more and was expecting it to be more spectacular than Hagia Sophia and as impressive as the mosques and mausolea in Uzbekistan.  I had earlier seen a spectacular photograph from inside it but I did not see anything like that.  I suspect it was taken from he second level, which was closed.  While it is a working mosque, I suspect the main shortcomings were due to the extensive renovations scheduled from 2016 to 2020.  Probably they are now finished and the experience inside may be now quite different.

. Architecture, Art, Basilica Cistern, Blue Mosque, Constantinople, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel

Centre of a sub-dome.

. Architecture, Art, Basilica Cistern, Blue Mosque, Constantinople, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel

Looking up a wall and sub-dome.

. Architecture, Art, Basilica Cistern, Blue Mosque, Constantinople, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel

Visitors to the Blue Mosque.

. Architecture, Art, Basilica Cistern, Blue Mosque, Constantinople, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel

Looking up at one of the minor domes.

This shows how spectacular the fully restored mosque could potentially be.  The main dome is off to the right but there was no view available from directly underneath it.

. Architecture, Art, Basilica Cistern, Blue Mosque, Constantinople, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel

The area available for viewing was quite restrictive.

. Architecture, Art, Basilica Cistern, Blue Mosque, Constantinople, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel

The carpet is obviously recent.  I wonder what the original floor coverings were.

. Architecture, Art, Basilica Cistern, Blue Mosque, Constantinople, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel .

. Architecture, Art, Basilica Cistern, Blue Mosque, Constantinople, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel

It might have been a seventeenth century statue of a worker with a vaccuum cleaner, but since it was moving it is likely it was a real person. 

This shows how extensive the next floor is and how recent, presumably from the last fifty years.  Previously the space was probably open below the central dome.  I don’t know whether this is a measure to provide more space for worshippers or a temporary part of the renovations, but the view from above it is likely to be much more impressive than the view from below.

. Architecture, Art, Basilica Cistern, Blue Mosque, Constantinople, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel

At the entrance to the Blue Mosque, looking towards the Hagia Sophia.

. Architecture, Art, Basilica Cistern, Blue Mosque, Constantinople, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel

Basilica Cistern.

Next we visited the Basilica Cistern, a vast underground water storage, 140 by 70 metres, and contains 336 marble columns (each 9 metres high), not far from Hagia Sophia. Its name comes because it was below the square for the basilica.  A basilica is a large Roman administrative building, associated with the forum.  The water came from a forest 19 kilometres away.

It was built by Constantine and later rebuilt by Justinian following damage during the Nika Riots.  It was also restored several times in the Ottoman period.

. Architecture, Art, Basilica Cistern, Blue Mosque, Constantinople, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel .

. Architecture, Art, Basilica Cistern, Blue Mosque, Constantinople, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel

Medusa head.

Two of the columns have Medusa heads at their base. They are said to be sideways or upside down to neutralise their power.  Where they came from is unknown.

. Architecture, Art, Basilica Cistern, Blue Mosque, Constantinople, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel

Medusa head the “right” way up.

So what do they look like the “right” way up?  Here you see it.  I’ve tested it out and after looking at the image, as far as I can tell, I haven’t turned to stone.  If you have a different experience, I take no responsibility (and you’re unlikely to complain anyway).

. Architecture, Art, Basilica Cistern, Blue Mosque, Constantinople, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel

The other Medusa head, this one is inverted.

. Architecture, Art, Basilica Cistern, Blue Mosque, Constantinople, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel

… And here it is, the “right” way up.

.

Topkapi Palace

Istanbul, 7 October 2018.

(Click on any image to see it in a larger size, if you are on a PC at least.)

.

Archaeology, Architecture, Art, Constantinople, Hagia Irene, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Topkapi Palace, Travel

Altar of the Hagia Irene.

From Hagia Sophia we headed off to the Topkapi Palace.  On the way we visited the Hagia Irene, even older than Hagia Sophia.

. Archaeology, Architecture, Art, Constantinople, Hagia Irene, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Topkapi Palace, Travel

Inside Hagia Irene.

These days it is little more than a shell, though it does have relatively recent seating and is used for concerts.  It apparently has very good acoustics.

It was the first church built in Constantinople and was completed by Constantine before the end of his reign in 337.  It was then the prime church of Constantinople until Hagia Sophia opened in 360.  It burnt down during the Nika Revolt in 532 and was rebuilt by Justinian by 548.  It was later damaged by an earthquake in 740 and restored by Constantine V.  It wasn’t converted into a mosque during Ottoman times, but was instead used as an arsenal until the nineteenth century.

.

Archaeology, Architecture, Art, Constantinople, Hagia Irene, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Topkapi Palace, Travel

Some faint traces of artworks, probably dating to an iconoclastic period in the eighth century.

. Archaeology, Architecture, Art, Constantinople, Hagia Irene, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Topkapi Palace, Travel .

.

 

Archaeology, Architecture, Art, Constantinople, Hagia Irene, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Topkapi Palace, Travel

Ancient arches.

. Archaeology, Architecture, Art, Constantinople, Hagia Irene, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Topkapi Palace, Travel

A section of ceiling.

. Archaeology, Architecture, Art, Constantinople, Hagia Irene, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Topkapi Palace, Travel

We are now at the gateway to the Topkapi Palace.

The Topkapi Palace is the Ottoman Palace, not to be confused with the Roman Imperial Palace or Great Palace, which was massive and ajoined both Hagia Sophia and the Hippodrome but has now largely disappeared.  Construction started on the Topkapi Palace in 1459 and it was rebuilt after an earthquake in 1509 and a fire in 1665.   It was the main seat of government and residence of the Sultans in the 15th and 16th centuries and after wards slowly lost importance.  It became a museum in 1924.

Unfortunately, photography was not allowed in the Sultan’s residence, harem and political chambers, so I am not able to show you the most spectacular views there.

.

Archaeology, Architecture, Art, Constantinople, Hagia Irene, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Topkapi Palace, Travel

After passing through those areas, we come out to views of the Bosphorous.

. Archaeology, Archit target=

Looking down on the Sultan’s Gardens (no doubt very different in their day) and north in the direction of the Black Sea.

. Archaeology, Architecture, Art, Constantinople, Hagia Irene, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Topkapi Palace, Travel .

.Archaeology, Architecture, Art, Constantinople, Hagia Irene, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Topkapi Palace, Travel

Kara Mustafa Pasha Pavilion.

. Archaeology, Architecture, Art, Constantinople, Hagia Irene, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Topkapi Palace, Travel

The same pavilion, looking in the opposite direction.

. Archaeology, Architecture, Art, Constantinople, Hagia Irene, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Topkapi Palace, Travel

Mother of pearl inlay wall decorations.

. Archaeology, Architecture, Art, Constantinople, Hagia Irene, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Topkapi Palace, Travel .

. Archaeology, Architecture, Art, Constantinople, Hagia Irene, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Topkapi Palace, Travel .

.Archaeology, Architecture, Art, Constantinople, Hagia Irene, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Topkapi Palace, Travel

A small viewing platform.

. Archaeology, Architecture, Art, Constantinople, Hagia Irene, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Topkapi Palace, Travel

Baghdad Kiosk.

. Archaeology, Architecture, Art, Constantinople, Hagia Irene, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Topkapi Palace, Travel .

. Archaeology, Architecture, Art, Constantinople, Hagia Irene, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Topkapi Palace, Travel .

. Archaeology, Architecture, Art, Constantinople, Hagia Irene, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Topkapi Palace, Travel .

. Archaeology, Architecture, Art, Constantinople, Hagia Irene, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Topkapi Palace, Travel

Revan Kiosk.

. Archaeology, Architecture, Art, Constantinople, Hagia Irene, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Topkapi Palace, Travel

Looking south, beyond the Bosphorous at the Sea of Marmara.

. Archaeology, Architecture, Art, Constantinople, Hagia Irene, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Topkapi Palace, Travel

Chariot relief, Cyzikus (Greek town on the south bank of the Sea of Marmara), 6th century BC.

(We are now visiting the Istanbul Archaeology Museum).

. Archaeology, Architecture, Art, Constantinople, Hagia Irene, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Topkapi Palace, Travel 

Letter from Hittite King Hattusili III to Akkadian Emperor Kadasman-Enlil II (based in Babylon), proposing war with Egypt.

In 1274BC Hattusli’s father Muwatalli III fought the battle of Kadesh against Egyptian Pharaoh Ramases II.  This was the largest chariot battle in history with 5,000 to 6,000 chariots.  The result of it is not clear though it did head off an attempted invasion of the Hittite Empire. 

This letter would have been early in Hattusli’s reign (which started from 1267BC, though it must have been at least 1263BC, the start of Kadasman-Enlil’s reign) and he probably never went to war with Egypt.  Instead, Kadasman-Enlil restored relations with Egypt with a dynastic marriage and Hattusli negotiated the Eternal Treaty or Treaty of Kadesh with Egypt, which Rameses ratified in 1258BC.  This is the earliest known peace treaty and also survives in the versions of both sides.

. Archaeology, Architecture, Art, Constantinople, Hagia Irene, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Topkapi Palace, Travel

Palmyran funerary reliefs (200-273AD).

Palmyria was a Roman client state based in Syria that at one time stretched from Asia Minor to Egypt.  It was incorporated into the Roman Empire in 272 after the unsuccessful revolt of the Empress Xenobia.

. Archaeology, Architecture, Art, Constantinople, Hagia Irene, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Topkapi Palace, Travel

Aphrodite removing her sandal.

(Roman 1st to 2nd century but copy of Classical Greek original).

I was impressed by the informality and realism of this statue.  Of course, in ancient times it would have been painted.

. Archaeology, Architecture, Art, Constantinople, Hagia Irene, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Topkapi Palace, Travel

Personal seal.

. Archaeology, Architecture, Art, Constantinople, Hagia Irene, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Topkapi Palace, Travel

These ring-necked parakeets are descended from recent aviary escapees.

. Archaeology, Architecture, Art, Constantinople, Hagia Irene, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Topkapi Palace, Travel .

. Archaeology, Architecture, Art, Constantinople, Hagia Irene, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Topkapi Palace, Travel

A surviving fragment of Roman-era construction.

. Archaeology, Architecture, Art, Constantinople, Hagia Irene, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Topkapi Palace, Travel

Freighter on the Bosphorous.

. Archaeology, Architecture, Art, Constantinople, Hagia Irene, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Topkapi Palace, Travel

Ancient walls, don’t know the provenance.

. Archaeology, Architecture, Art, Constantinople, Hagia Irene, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Topkapi Palace, Travel

And after dinner, it was time for some shopping….

. Archaeology, Architecture, Art, Constantinople, Hagia Irene, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Topkapi Palace, Travel .

.Archaeology, Architecture, Art, Constantinople, Hagia Irene, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Topkapi Palace, Travel .

.Archaeology, Architecture, Art, Constantinople, Hagia Irene, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Topkapi Palace, Travel .

Hagia Sophia

Istanbul, 7 to 8 October 2018.

(Click on any image to see it in a larger size, if you are on a PC at least.)

.

(This is a longer post than usual with 44 images. I was going to break it into two but here it is, as one post.  This is a very historic building so there’s also a fair amount to read.)

.

Architecture, Art, Constantinople, Hagia Sophia, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel

Here it is, Hagia Sophia.

Istanbul was called Constantinople until 1930.  Constantine founded Constantinople in 330AD to be the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire.  Before that, there was the city of Byzantium on the site from the 7th century BC.  It was mainly a minor independent town but at various times occupied by Athens, Sparta and Persia until the Romans took over, I presume at the same time as the rest of Greece in 146BC. (Ancient Greece included all the islands and shores of the Aegean Sea, including the western edge of what is now Turkey).

. Architecture, Art, Constantinople, Hagia Sophia, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel

The spire and crescent atop the dome, dating from 1577.

The original church on the site, the “Great Church”, was built in 360, or possibly a decade or two earlier.  It mainly burnt down in 404 in riots resulting from the banishment of Archbishop Chrysostom by Empress Aelia Eudoxia and Emperor Arcadius.  The next church on the site was built by the Emperor Theodosius II in 415 and the name Hagia Sophia (meaning “Holy Wisdom”) came into use around 430.  That Hagia Sophia was destroyed by the Nika riots in 532, by the Blue and Green factions in the Hippodrome (chariot racing), protesting high taxation levied by Justinian in a time of war with Persia.  Much of Constantinople was also burnt.  The current Hagia Sophia was consecrated in 537 and was originally clad in white marble.

.Architecture, Art, Constantinople, Hagia Sophia, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel

Entering the Hagia Sophia.

Hagia Sophia has been affected by many earthquakes requiring subsequent reconstruction.  Earthquakes in 553, 557 and 558 caused the main dome to collapse and reconstruction was completed in 562.  Among similar events was a fire in 859 and earthquakes in 869, 989, 1344, 1346, 1509 and 1895.  There have been many restoration efforts over the years.

.

Architecture, Art, Constantinople, Hagia Sophia, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel

Inside now, this is the Mihrab, the focal point of the interior of a mosque, indicating the qibla, or the direction of the Kaaba in Mecca, showing the direction to pray. 

Its final form dates from the nineteenth century.  The stained glass windows appear to have been modified or replaced since the Ottoman takeover.  In Byzantine times, this was the apse and housed the altar, so it was also the focus of the Cathedral.

The Hagia Sophia was an Eastern Orthodox Cathedral from 537 to 1204, when Constantinople was conquered by a renegade army from the Fourth Crusade, then a Roman Catholic Cathedral until 1261 when the Byzantines conquered it back.  It reverted to an Eastern Orthodox Cathedral until 1453 when the Ottomans took over.  It was then a Mosque until 1935 when under Kemal Ataturk’s secular state it was converted to a museum. It was still a museum when I visited but in July 2020, Erdogan controversially converted it back to a Mosque.

Supporting buttresses were added at various times by the Byzantines, Latins and Ottomans and the Ottomans added four minarets around it.

.

Architecture, Art, Constantinople, Hagia Sophia, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel

Islamic calligraphic ceiling art.

. Architecture, Art, Constantinople, Hagia Sophia, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel

An ancient passageway to the upper level.

. Architecture, Art, Constantinople, Hagia Sophia, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel

Looking down on the main hall and up to the main dome.

Hagia Sophia was the largest cathedral in the world for around 1,000 years and the dome was the largest in the world for around 900 years.  The floor is marble from an island in the Sea of Marmara and it dates to the post-earthquake restoration of 558 under Justinian.  As of 2020, it is now covered in carpet.

. Architecture, Art, Constantinople, Hagia Sophia, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel

This is the Deesis Mosaic, from the thirteenth century, showing the Virgin Mary, Christ and John the Baptist.  It is thought to have replaced an earlier mosaic.

Hagia Sophia was looted in 1203 and 1204 by the Latin army (which had already been excommunicated by the Pope) and by the Ottomans in 1453.  Some of the mosaics are incomplete due to the temptations of gold leaf.  The mosaic tiles were glass tesserae, with two small squares of glass and gold leaf between them.  Thus looters had to chisel off mosaic tiles to get to the gold leaf.  Surviving mosaics are very high up because gold leaf was valuable and surviving ones were difficult to access.

Also, there were two periods of iconoclasm, 726 to 787 and 814 to 842, when religious pictures and statues were removed from the Hagia Sophia.

In the initial period after the Ottoman takeover in 1453, at least some of the mosaics were covered in whitewash.

. Architecture, Art, Constantinople, Hagia Sophia, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel

Closeup of Christ Pantocrator (or the all-powerful).

. Architecture, Art, Constantinople, Hagia Sophia, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel

The Comnenus mosaic, dating from 1122, shows John II Comnenus (Emperor 1118 to 1143), Virgin Mary and Christ Child, and Empress Irene (from Hungary).

Forty-five years before John came to the throne, in the aftermath of the Battle of Manzikert, the Seljuk Turks took over Asian Minor from the Empire.  Then at the end of the eleventh century, John’s predecessor, Alexios I Comnenus, inadvertently summoned the First Crusade who won it most of it back for him.  John II was a competent Emperor who was able to stabilise the Empire with successful campaigns against the Normans in the Balkans and the Seljuk Turks in Asia Minor, coupled with strategic fortifications.

. Architecture, Art, Constantinople, Hagia Sophia, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel

The Empress Zoe mosaic, from the 11th century, shows Constantine IX Monomarchus (Emperor 1042 to 1055), Christ Pantocrator and Empress Zoe. 

Zoe had a curious history.  Her father, Constantine VIII had no sons and persuaded her to marry Romanos Agyros in 1028, who became Emperor Romanos III a day later after Constantine died.  In 1034, Romanos was found dead in his bath, though to have been murdered by either Zoe or her lover, who married on the same day and he became Emperor Michael IV on the next day. Michael died in 1041 and Zoe became co-regent with his nephew who became Michael V.  A few months later, Michael V exiled Zoe for plotting to poison him.  However, this lead to a popular revolt and Zoe returned in 1042 as co-Emperor with her sister Theodora.  That was not so comfortable so Zoe married a former lover who became Constantine IX (in the mosaic above).  Zoe died in 1050 (at the age of 72) and  Constantine died in 1055.  Although Constantine wanted someone else to succeed him, Theodora then returned as sole Empress for two years. 

The heads of Constantine IX and Zoe in the mosaic are believed to have replaced different heads from a somewhat earlier period in family history.  Apart from Theodora, this was not one of the more competent periods in Byzantine administration.

. Architecture, Art, Constantinople, Hagia Sophia, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel

Looking up at a Byzantine decoration remnant.

. Architecture, Art, Constantinople, Hagia Sophia, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel

Mysterious inscription just below a marble hand rail.

. Architecture, Art, Constantinople, Hagia Sophia, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel

Various decorations from periods I am unable to determine.  However, the marble facings must date to the sixth century.

. Architecture, Art, Constantinople, Hagia Sophia, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel .

.Architecture, Art, Constantinople, Hagia Sophia, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel .

. Architecture, Art, Constantinople, Hagia Sophia, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel

This is a seraphim or one of the “six-winged fiery angels that surround God”.  There would originally have been a face under the golden metal centre or perhaps it is still there.

. Architecture, Art, Constantinople, Hagia Sophia, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel

One of the round calligraphic panels on each side of the apse wall (also seen in other views of the main chamber).

They date to between 1847 and 1849 and the descriptive panel says “Allah (the God), Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him), The four Caliphs:  Abu Bakr, Omar, Osman, Ali.  The descendants of the Prophet Muhhammad Hassan and Hussein.”  I presume that is the summation of the inscriptions on all the panels (which differ).

. Architecture, Art, Constantinople, Hagia Sophia, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel

Remarkable marble panelling.

. Architecture, Art, Constantinople, Hagia Sophia, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel

Graffiti on a marble hand rail.

There are various examples of graffiti.  This one is perhaps Greek, but they include examples of Viking runes from the Varangian Guards, who were originally Vikings from Kievan Rus.

. Architecture, Art, Constantinople, Hagia Sophia, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel

Looking up, probably above the viewing area.

. Architecture, Art, Constantinople, Hagia Sophia, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel

Heading down to the ground level again.

. Architecture, Art, Constantinople, Hagia Sophia, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel .

. Architecture, Art, Constantinople, Hagia Sophia, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel

Evidence of differing building projects in different eras.

. Architecture, Art, Constantinople, Hagia Sophia, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel

Back by the main chamber. 

On the right is a large marble jar from Pergamon dating to the Hellenistic Period (post Alexander the Great) and carved from a single block of marble.  Pergamon was a major Greek city on what is now the western coast of Turkey.  The jar was brought to Hagia Sophia during the reign of Murad III (1574-1585).

. Architecture, Art, Constantinople, Hagia Sophia, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel

Looking up at the main dome.

Although architecture of previous ancient cultures, including Persia, had included domes, none had been of the scale of Hagia Sophia.  It was a prime influence of architecture in succeeding cultures, including the Islamic World and the domes I photographed in Uzbekistan.  The Hagia Sophia of course predates the Islamic World.

. Architecture, Art, Constantinople, Hagia Sophia, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel

Islamic wall tiles.

. Architecture, Art, Constantinople, Hagia Sophia, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel

Back to near where we started, the Mihrab is in the centre distance at floor level and the Minbar, where the Imam speaks from, is on the right.  More generally, this is also the Apse, with a mosaic of the Madonna and child above the windows.  We can also see a clearer view of the now-covered marble floor (dating from the sixth century).

. Architecture, Art, Constantinople, Hagia Sophia, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel

Here is a closer view of the mosaic. 

It probably dates to the late fourteenth century, though this is not certain.  It was covered towards the end of the eighteenth century and rediscovered during the renovations of 1847-48.

. Architecture, Art, Constantinople, Hagia Sophia, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel

This is the Angel Gabriel Mosaic (or what remains of it), from about 867.

. Architecture, Art, Constantinople, Hagia Sophia, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel

Islamic stained glass window.

While the Ottomans conquered Byzantium in 1453, it was really the renegade Latin crusaders of the Fourth Crusade who were more responsible for the fall after they took Constantinople in 1204.  At the death of Manuel I Comnenus in 1180, the Byzantine Empire had included the Balkans, Greece, the Aegean Islands, Cyprus and much of Asia Minor.  While the Byzantine Empire was restored in 1261 to include Northern Greece and Western Turkey, it did not remain this way for long.  For most of the next couple of centuries Constantinople was isolated with hardly any local territory and a few small outposts in Greece.  It lacked resources and by the time the Ottomans took over, the Hagia Sophia was in a state of disrepair.

Even then, in 1453 there was a Venetian relief fleet on the way that did not arrive in time.  Since it was the sea wall rather than the land walls that were breached, Constantinople would have been able to hold out for at least another few more years. 

Constantinople had massive city walls and formidable defences.  There were eighteen unsuccessful sieges by external powers prior to 1453.  One of the most significant was that of the Sassanian (Persian) Empire in 626.  But Emperor Heracles broke free and destroyed the Sassanians in their heartland in 627.  After that, both empires were exhausted and the Sassanian Empire fell to the Arabs within the next twenty-seven years.  In a different period, the rapid advance of the Arabs may not have been so easy.

. Architecture, Art, Constantinople, Hagia Sophia, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel

Cross faintly visible on the floor under later Islamic patterns.

. Architecture, Art, Constantinople, Hagia Sophia, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel

The Omphalion.  The place of East Roman coronations.  Unlike the rest of the floor, not now covered in carpet.

. Architecture, Art, Constantinople, Hagia Sophia, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel

Looking up and old Christian and later Islamic decorations.

. Architecture, Art, Constantinople, Hagia Sophia, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel

Polychrome marble revetments, or bracing structures, dating back to the original cathedral opened in 532.

. Architecture, Art, Constantinople, Hagia Sophia, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel

Ancient mosaic under an arch.

. Architecture, Art, Constantinople, Hagia Sophia, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel

Here there appears to be later plastering and painting to the same pattern as the mosaic underneath, perhaps to cover up earthquake damage.

. Architecture, Art, Constantinople, Hagia Sophia, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel

Looking up in the main chamber.

. Architecture, Art, Constantinople, Hagia Sophia, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel

The Vestibule Mosaic, from the 9th century.

The Virgin Mary and Christ Child are in the middle between Justinian I (left), holding a model of the Hagia Sophia, and Constantine (right), holding a model of the city of Constantinople. Justinian is described as “Emperor of Illustrious Memory” whereas Constantine is described as “the great Emperor amongst the saints”.

. Architecture, Art, Constantinople, Hagia Sophia, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel

Madonna and child closeup.

. Architecture, Art, Constantinople, Hagia Sophia, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel

Central part of bronze door from Hellenistic Temple of Tarsus of the second century BC, placed in Hagia Sophia by Emperor Theophilos (829-842).

. Architecture, Art, Constantinople, Hagia Sophia, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel

Next day, students posing outside for Istanbul Autumn Agora 2018, a kind of student conference concerned with sustainability.

. Architecture, Art, Constantinople, Hagia Sophia, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel

An Islamic group in front of the Hagia Sophia.

. Architecture, Art, Constantinople, Hagia Sophia, History, Istanbul, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel

Hagia Sophia at night.

.

State Museum of Arts,Tashkent

Tashkent, Uzbekistan, 6 October 2018.

(Click on any image to see it in a larger size.)

.

On our last day in Tashkent we had some spare time before catching the plane and chose to visit the State Museum of Arts.

.

Archaeology, Art, Ceramics, History, Landscape, Photography, Tashkent, Travel, Uzbekistan.

Reconstructed face of Neanderthal boy, Teshiktash Cave, Surkhandaraya region.

There was also a Neanderthal skull, 100,000 years old, from the same location.

. Archaeology, Art, Ceramics, History, Landscape, Photography, Tashkent, Travel, Uzbekistan.

Flint tools from 4th Millennium BC, Bukhara region.

.

Archaeology, Art, Ceramics, History, Landscape, Photography, Tashkent, Travel, Uzbekistan.

Rock carvings, 3rd Millennium BC.

.Archaeology, Art, Ceramics, History, Landscape, Photography, Tashkent, Travel, Uzbekistan.

Jar handle in the form of a goat, 5th to 4th millennium BC.

This image and the next two are images of objects from the Amudarya Treasure.  The originals are gold but these are replicas.  In 1880, Captain F.C. Burton happened upon some Afghan merchants being attacked by bandits in the roads of what is now Northern Pakistan, and drove off the bandits.  One of the merchants later showed Burton some items he had and Burton was most intrigued so purchased one.  Burton later showed it to Major General Sir Alexander Cunningham, Director General of the Archaeological Survey of India, whose jaw hit the floor.  Cunningham correctly identified it  as a a fine example of Achæmenid Persian metalwork, from a period when the Achæmenid Emprire stretched from Egypt to the Indus Valley.  Together with Sir Augustus Wollaston Franks, a curator of the British Museum, Cunningham scoured the markets of Pakistan and Northern India for several months and succeeded in purchasing 170 items from the hoard.  They are now in the British Museum.  The treasure had been found on the northern bank of the Amyu Darya River (the Oxus in Classical times), in what is now Tajikistan.

.

Archaeology, Art, Ceramics, History, Landscape, Photography, Tashkent, Travel, Uzbekistan.

Priest, 5th to 4th millennium BC.

.Archaeology, Art, Ceramics, History, Landscape, Photography, Tashkent, Travel, Uzbekistan.

Bracelet with Griffins, , 5th to 4th millennium BC.

. Archaeology, Art, Ceramics, History, Landscape, Photography, Tashkent, Travel, Uzbekistan.

Ancient individual with Central Asian headgear (didn’t record the label for this one).

. Archaeology, Art, Ceramics, History, Landscape, Photography, Tashkent, Travel, Uzbekistan.

Coins of Greco-Bactrian Kingdom, 3rd to 2nd centuries BC.

.

Archaeology, Art, Ceramics, History, Landscape, Photography, Tashkent, Travel, Uzbekistan.

Solar Deity, 1st to 2nd centuries AD, Fayaztepa, Old Termez, Southern Uzbekistan.

.

Archaeology, Art, Ceramics, History, Landscape, Photography, Tashkent, Travel, Uzbekistan.

Buddha with monks, 1st to 3rd century AD.

. Archaeology, Art, Ceramics, History, Landscape, Photography, Tashkent, Travel, Uzbekistan.

Cover from reliquary vessel, 3rd to 4th centuries AD, Kara-Tepa, Old Termez, Southern Uzbekistan.

. Archaeology, Art, Ceramics, History, Landscape, Photography, Tashkent, Travel, Uzbekistan.

Hunting scene, mural painting, 7th century AD, Varakhsha, Ancient Sogdian city near Bukhara.

.

This is a copy of one of the world’s oldest Korans.  We saw the original at the start of the trip in Barakh-khan Madrasah (in Tashkent).  Photography is not permitted of the original one.  In either case, it is huge.  The original supposedly dates back to the 630s but testing indicates an early 8th to early 9th century date.

. Archaeology, Art, Ceramics, History, Landscape, Photography, Tashkent, Travel, Uzbekistan.

Glazed ceramic, Samarkand, 10th century.

. Archaeology, Art, Ceramics, History, Landscape, Photography, Tashkent, Travel, Uzbekistan.

Glazed ceramic, Samarkand, 11th century.

. Archaeology, Art, Ceramics, History, Landscape, Photography, Tashkent, Travel, Uzbekistan.

Ceramic dish, 10th to 12th Centuries.

. Archaeology, Art, Ceramics, History, Landscape, Photography, Tashkent, Travel, Uzbekistan.

Glazed ceramic, Samarkand, 12th century.

. Archaeology, Art, Ceramics, History, Landscape, Photography, Tashkent, Travel, Uzbekistan.

Armour of one of Timur’s soldiers, 14th to 15th centuries.

. Archaeology, Art, Ceramics, History, Landscape, Photography, Tashkent, Travel, Uzbekistan.

Glazed ceramic, Samarkand, 15th to 16th centuries.

. Archaeology, Art, Ceramics, History, Landscape, Photography, Tashkent, Travel, Uzbekistan.

Chain mail armour, shield and sword, Bukhara, 18th to 19th centuries.

.

Archaeology, Art, Ceramics, History, Landscape, Photography, Tashkent, Travel, Uzbekistan.

Embassy from Khiva, in Tashkent, early 19th century.

.

Archaeology, Art, Ceramics, History, Landscape, Photography, Tashkent, Travel, Uzbekistan.

Nineteenth century door from Khiva.

. Archaeology, Art, Ceramics, History, Landscape, Photography, Tashkent, Travel, Uzbekistan.

Nineteenth century door from Bukhara.

. Archaeology, Art, Ceramics, History, Landscape, Photography, Tashkent, Travel, Uzbekistan.

Nineteenth century door from Tashkent.

. Archaeology, Art, Ceramics, History, Landscape, Photography, Tashkent, Travel, Uzbekistan.

Military uniform, Bukhara, 1861-1865.

.

Archaeology, Art, Ceramics, History, Landscape, Photography, Tashkent, Travel, Uzbekistan.

Siege of Samarkand, 1868.

Russia occupied Samarkand in 1868, which had been held by Bukhara.  The Russian army then left to pursue the Bukharan army, leaving a small force behind to hold Samarkand.  A combined Bukharan/ Kokand force then laid siege to Samarkand.  This is what is shown here.  The besiegers withdrew when the main Russian force returned.

.

Archaeology, Art, Ceramics, History, Landscape, Photography, Tashkent, Travel, Uzbekistan.

“Bazaar in Samakand”, 1897.

. Archaeology, Art, Ceramics, History, Landscape, Photography, Tashkent, Travel, Uzbekistan.

“Bibikhonum Square”, Samarkand. 

(See here for my post on its restored appearance).

. Archaeology, Art, Ceramics, History, Landscape, Photography, Tashkent, Travel, Uzbekistan.

“The street of a Central Asian city”, 1896.

. Archaeology, Art, Ceramics, History, Landscape, Photography, Tashkent, Travel, Uzbekistan.

Decorative embroidery, late nineteenth century, Tashkent.

. Archaeology, Art, Ceramics, History, Landscape, Photography, Tashkent, Travel, Uzbekistan.

Saddle, Namangan, Ferghana Valley, late 19th century.

.

Archaeology, Art, Ceramics, History, Landscape, Photography, Tashkent, Travel, Uzbekistan.

Emir’s horse-blanket, 1911-1912.

. Archaeology, Art, Ceramics, History, Landscape, Photography, Tashkent, Travel, Uzbekistan.

Jewellery, early 20th century.

. Archaeology, Art, Ceramics, History, Landscape, Photography, Tashkent, Travel, Uzbekistan. .

Archaeology, Art, Ceramics, History, Landscape, Photography, Tashkent, Travel, Uzbekistan.

Gidjak and Rubab (traditional instruments), 1978.

.

That was the last post on Uzbekistan, apart from monochrome conversion posts to follow.  Particular thanks to Advantour who organised a wonderful custom tour for us at a reasonable price.  There have been 22 posts with 600 images and 15,000 words.  I have updated the index of posts in the Trip Itinerary.

Arrival, Bukhara

Bukhara, Uzbekistan
29-30 September 2018.

(Click on any image to see it in a larger size.)

.

Architecture, Art, Bukhara, Ceramics, History, Landscape, Magoki-Attori Mosque, Nadir Divan Begi Madrassah, Photography, Silk, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan

A truck on the road between Khiva and Bokhara. Likely advice to any pedestrians on the right side of the road – run!

.

Architecture, Art, Bukhara, Ceramics, History, Landscape, Magoki-Attori Mosque, Nadir Divan Begi Madrassah, Photography, Silk, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan

The sign at the restaurant at the left says “ШАШЛИК СОМСА КЕПСИ ТОВУҚ ЖИЗ”, or as you might have guessed “Shashlik Somsa Kepsi Chicken Jiz”.

.
.
Architecture, Art, Bukhara, Ceramics, History, Landscape, Magoki-Attori Mosque, Nadir Divan Begi Madrassah, Photography, Silk, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan

A dome in the late afternoon light in Bukhara.

.
.
Architecture, Art, Bukhara, Ceramics, History, Landscape, Magoki-Attori Mosque, Nadir Divan Begi Madrassah, Photography, Silk, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan

This looks like a sunset but the sun is well above the horizon, so it’s an exposure directly into the sun which is shining through the window in the cupola. Rather than a low light exposure, it is actually 200 ISO, 1/8,000 sec, f11.
.
Architecture, Art, Bukhara, Ceramics, History, Landscape, Magoki-Attori Mosque, Nadir Divan Begi Madrassah, Photography, Silk, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan

A little later with a cloud of birds in the distance. These two were probably taken at dinner.
.
Architecture, Art, Bukhara, Ceramics, History, Landscape, Magoki-Attori Mosque, Nadir Divan Begi Madrassah, Photography, Silk, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan

An hour later, a wedding group on the streets.
.
Architecture, Art, Bukhara, Ceramics, History, Landscape, Magoki-Attori Mosque, Nadir Divan Begi Madrassah, Photography, Silk, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan

This is above the main portal of the Nadir Divan-begi Madrasa.

It was built as a caravanserai (prosaically, if you like, a motel with camels instead of cars) but either dedicated as or later converted to a madrassah (or school, often religious) and the architecture more resembles a caravanserai than a madrassah. It was built during the reign of Imam Quli Khan (1611 to 1642, a time of prosperity and peace) and built by his Vizier Nadir Divan-begi, after whom it is named. In the image above, the sun has a face as do the serpents below him. Traditionally, Islam strongly disapproved of depiction of humans and animals but this was relaxed in the Persian-influenced world in the early seventeenth century.

.
Architecture, Art, Bukhara, Ceramics, History, Landscape, Magoki-Attori Mosque, Nadir Divan Begi Madrassah, Photography, Silk, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan

This image and the next eight are also in the Nadir Divan-begi Madrassah.
.
Architecture, Art, Bukhara, Ceramics, History, Landscape, Magoki-Attori Mosque, Nadir Divan Begi Madrassah, Photography, Silk, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan

Wall and ceiling details…..
.
Architecture, Art, Bukhara, Ceramics, History, Landscape, Magoki-Attori Mosque, Nadir Divan Begi Madrassah, Photography, Silk, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan .
.
Architecture, Art, Bukhara, Ceramics, History, Landscape, Magoki-Attori Mosque, Nadir Divan Begi Madrassah, Photography, Silk, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan .
.
Architecture, Art, Bukhara, Ceramics, History, Landscape, Magoki-Attori Mosque, Nadir Divan Begi Madrassah, Photography, Silk, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan .
.
Architecture, Art, Bukhara, Ceramics, History, Landscape, Magoki-Attori Mosque, Nadir Divan Begi Madrassah, Photography, Silk, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan

A silk weaver.
.
Architecture, Art, Bukhara, Ceramics, History, Landscape, Magoki-Attori Mosque, Nadir Divan Begi Madrassah, Photography, Silk, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan

Discussion of potential purchases, perhaps.
.
Architecture, Art, Bukhara, Ceramics, History, Landscape, Magoki-Attori Mosque, Nadir Divan Begi Madrassah, Photography, Silk, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan

Looking up….
.
Architecture, Art, Bukhara, Ceramics, History, Landscape, Magoki-Attori Mosque, Nadir Divan Begi Madrassah, Photography, Silk, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan

A variety of textile wonders on offer…..
.
Architecture, Art, Bukhara, Ceramics, History, Landscape, Magoki-Attori Mosque, Nadir Divan Begi Madrassah, Photography, Silk, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan

This is the ancient Magoki-Attori Mosque.
.
Architecture, Art, Bukhara, Ceramics, History, Landscape, Magoki-Attori Mosque, Nadir Divan Begi Madrassah, Photography, Silk, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan

This southern entrance dates to the 12th century and you can see the trace of carved blue majolica tiles.
.
Architecture, Art, Bukhara, Ceramics, History, Landscape, Magoki-Attori Mosque, Nadir Divan Begi Madrassah, Photography, Silk, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan

There was originally a Zoroastrian fire temple and later a Buddhist temple. The Moslem religion arrived about 650AD but its takeover was gradual. At one time both Jews and Moslems were said to have worshiped here concurrently though this may have been at different times of the day. Bukhara burnt down in 927 and the mosque was built or rebuilt at this time. It was rebuilt in the 12th century using the design of the previous mosque and restored in the 14th and 17th centuries and the 1930s and 1970s. It had to be dug out in the 1930s because over the years it had sunk below rising levels of sand.
.
Architecture, Art, Bukhara, Ceramics, History, Landscape, Magoki-Attori Mosque, Nadir Divan Begi Madrassah, Photography, Silk, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan

It is a UNESCO World Heritage site and one of the oldest mosques in central Asia.
.
Architecture, Art, Bukhara, Ceramics, History, Landscape, Magoki-Attori Mosque, Nadir Divan Begi Madrassah, Photography, Silk, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan

Carved doorway.
.
Architecture, Art, Bukhara, Ceramics, History, Landscape, Magoki-Attori Mosque, Nadir Divan Begi Madrassah, Photography, Silk, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan

Looking up in the top level, from the 1930s.
.
Architecture, Art, Bukhara, Ceramics, History, Landscape, Magoki-Attori Mosque, Nadir Divan Begi Madrassah, Photography, Silk, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan

Not far away is the foundations of an ancient structure but I can’t remember what our guide said and I can not find information on what it was.

(The edge of the Toqi Telpak Furushon Trading Dome is in the background at the far right. We go there in the next post.)
.

Architecture, Art, Bukhara, Ceramics, History, Landscape, Magoki-Attori Mosque, Nadir Divan Begi Madrassah, Photography, Silk, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan

.

Juma Mosque and Toshkhovli Palace, Khiva

Khiva, Uzbekistan
28 September 2018.

(Click on any image to see it in a larger size.)

.

Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Juma Mosque, Khiva, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Toshkhovli Palace, Travel, Uzbekistan

We’ve just left the Kukhna Ark (previous two posts), and here is a most impressive door handle and knocker nearby.

.

Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Juma Mosque, Khiva, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Toshkhovli Palace, Travel, Uzbekistan

… also a cheerful dromedary camel, lying in sand.

.

Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Juma Mosque, Khiva, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Toshkhovli Palace, Travel, Uzbekistan

Wedding party on the road, as we walk towards Juma Mosque.  Probably Tura Murad minaret in the near background.

.

Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Juma Mosque, Khiva, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Toshkhovli Palace, Travel, Uzbekistan

We are now inside Juma (or Djuma or Friday) Mosque which has a single hall interior and was built in the late eighteenth century over the remains of the previous mosque, so that many of the pillars here are much older.  There are 213 pillars, each different.  The oldest four were salvaged in the tenth century from the declining city of Kath, which had been the capital of the Khwarezmian Empire.  Another seventeen were added a century later.  Other pillars date from the fourteenth and sixteenth centuries but most of them are from the eighteenth.  The acoustics of the hall are also impressive.

Kath (modern town: Beruniy) was the capital of Khwarazm under the Afrighids (a Persian dynasty) from 305 to 995AD.  They were Zoroastrian until the 8th century when there was a violent forced Moslem conversion.  The Ma’munids took over in 995.  The Ghaznavids (a Persian dynasty of Turkic Mamluk origin) then took over a couple of years later.

.

Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Juma Mosque, Khiva, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Toshkhovli Palace, Travel, Uzbekistan

I took quite a few macro shots of carvings on the pillars.  Unfortunately most failed but here are two.  (Technical note: I think I switched to manual for focus-bracketing the image of the hall above, and forgot to switch back to Auto ISO).

.

Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Juma Mosque, Khiva, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Toshkhovli Palace, Travel, Uzbekistan .

.

Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Juma Mosque, Khiva, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Toshkhovli Palace, Travel, Uzbekistan

Outside, a young bride-to-be on the street.

.

Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Juma Mosque, Khiva, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Toshkhovli Palace, Travel, Uzbekistan

… and we walked towards our next destination the Toshkhovli Palace.

..

Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Juma Mosque, Khiva, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Toshkhovli Palace, Travel, Uzbekistan

A ceiling detail from the palace.

Toshkhovli (or Tosh Hauli or Stone Courtyard) Palace was built from 1830 to 1838 by Allakuli-Khan as an updated dwelling from the Kukhna Ark.  Apparently some architects who refused to build it in two years were executed and it took eight years to build.  These days it also houses a Khorezm Handicrafts Museum.

.

Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Juma Mosque, Khiva, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Toshkhovli Palace, Travel, Uzbekistan

This is in the Harem area and the iwan we see (the recessed courtyard decorated with majolica tiles) is one of the four for each of the Khan’s wives.  Behind this exterior was her living quarters and a lounge room for her attendants.  Even courtiers were refused access here.

.

Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Juma Mosque, Khiva, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Toshkhovli Palace, Travel, Uzbekistan

A section of the ceiling of the iwan at the left or right.

.

Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Juma Mosque, Khiva, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Toshkhovli Palace, Travel, Uzbekistan

A section of the ceiling of the iwan in the middle.

.

Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Juma Mosque, Khiva, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Toshkhovli Palace, Travel, Uzbekistan

They’re clearly not wagon wheels.  Perhaps they were used for cattle to grind grain.

.

Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Juma Mosque, Khiva, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Toshkhovli Palace, Travel, Uzbekistan

This is the iwan of the Khan, and in front of it on the round platform is the framework of a yurt that would have been his summer residence.  Behind the iwan are corridors connecting to the iwans of the wives that only the Khan could use.

.

Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Juma Mosque, Khiva, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Toshkhovli Palace, Travel, Uzbekistan

An impressive door, possibly of greater antiquity than the palace.

.

Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Juma Mosque, Khiva, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Toshkhovli Palace, Travel, Uzbekistan

There are two sections to see of the palace, and you have to go outside and re-enter to see the second one.  That is the exterior of the palace behind the wall.

There is an old well in the Palace, which we did not see.  However there is a more important ancient well (which we also did not see) near the north wall of the old city, which is central to the story of Khiva.  It was the original reason for merchants stopping here along their Silk Road journeys.  It is said that on tasting the clear water they would exclaim “Khey Vakh!” (“How Wonderful”) so the locals named the well Kheyvak, which led in turn to Khiva getting its name.

.

Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Juma Mosque, Khiva, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Toshkhovli Palace, Travel, Uzbekistan

Another ceiling section.

.

Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Juma Mosque, Khiva, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Toshkhovli Palace, Travel, Uzbekistan

This is the Khan’s bedroom.

.

Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Juma Mosque, Khiva, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Toshkhovli Palace, Travel, Uzbekistan

Opposite the iwans of the Khan and the wives, this is the residence for the concubines and the household staff.

.

Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Juma Mosque, Khiva, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Toshkhovli Palace, Travel, Uzbekistan

Back outside the palace again.

.

Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Juma Mosque, Khiva, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Toshkhovli Palace, Travel, Uzbekistan

An array of textiles on an open courtyard.

.

Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Juma Mosque, Khiva, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Toshkhovli Palace, Travel, Uzbekistan

Shown from a different angle, this shows where we are.  Pakhlavan Mahmud Mausoleum on the left and the base of Islam Khoja Minaret.

.

Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Juma Mosque, Khiva, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Toshkhovli Palace, Travel, Uzbekistan

Nearby, a selection of handicrafts.

.

Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Juma Mosque, Khiva, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Toshkhovli Palace, Travel, Uzbekistan

Remarkable wood carving.  Maybe a door, not sure.

.

Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Juma Mosque, Khiva, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Toshkhovli Palace, Travel, Uzbekistan

We are back near we were staying, cruising the markets for handicrafts.  Tura Murad Minaret is in the background.  The man sitting in the chair was waiting for prospective customers to don his coat and a hat and pose for a photograph.  The locals passing by don’t look that impressed.

.

Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Juma Mosque, Khiva, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Toshkhovli Palace, Travel, Uzbekistan

Markets and Kalta Minor in the background.  I did buy a hat like one of those on the right.

.

Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Juma Mosque, Khiva, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Toshkhovli Palace, Travel, Uzbekistan

The camel is still there a couple of hours later.  That must be the Muhammad Rahim-khan Madrasah in the background.  Perhaps that door is solely for camels from the madrassah.

.

Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Juma Mosque, Khiva, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Toshkhovli Palace, Travel, Uzbekistan

A young couple having wedding or engagement photos in the old city.

.

Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Juma Mosque, Khiva, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Toshkhovli Palace, Travel, Uzbekistan

Looking back at the top of the Pakhlavan Mahmud Mausoleum and the Islam Khoja Minaret.

.

Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Juma Mosque, Khiva, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Toshkhovli Palace, Travel, Uzbekistan

Not sure exactly which buildings the last two images are from.

.

Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Juma Mosque, Khiva, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Toshkhovli Palace, Travel, Uzbekistan

That is Tura Murad Minaret again in the background though.

.

Kukhna Ark, Khiva, Part 2

Khiva, Uzbekistan
28 September 2018.

(Click on any image to see it in a larger size.)

After the last post, I was expecting to move on to the Juma Mosque and views of Khiva at night.  However, I was using two cameras and it turned out that the date time settings for one of the cameras was eleven hours different to the other one.  So when I finished selecting images from the Kukhna Ark, these were just from the camera with the correct date time setting and the images from the same time with the second camera were mixed up with later and night images from the first camera.

Had I realised this, there still would have been two posts but I would have divided them up differently.  Still, it’s not so bad because the lenses on each camera were quite different so the images between each post are quite different.  The first six images here are street photography with a wide angle lens and the rest are long telephotos, many very long telephotos.

For the more technically focused, both cameras were Fujifilm X-T2s.  In the first post I used six different lenses but 40% of the images were from a 10-24mm f4 lens (15mm to 36mm full frame equivalent) and another 40% from an 80mm f2.8 macro (120mm equivalent), sometimes with a 1.4x teleconverter.  In this post, the first six images are with a 23mm f2 lens (35mm equivalent) and the rest were with a 100-400mm f4.5-5.6 lens (150mm to 600mm equivalent) and about half of those were with a 1.4x teleconverter.  Most of those were at the longer end of the zoom range so could be up to 840mm full frame equivalent.

There are brief comments on many of the images below but for more information on Khiva and its history, go back and view the previous post if you have not already done so.
.

Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Khiva, Kukhna Ark, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan

Street markets in the old city.  They must be somewhere near where we were staying but I can’t work out exactly where for the first two images.

.

Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Khiva, Kukhna Ark, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan
The car in the distance puzzles me because the map shows only three gates into the Old City and it’s not one of them.

.

Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Khiva, Kukhna Ark, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan
This is the Tura Murad Minaret.

.Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Khiva, Kukhna Ark, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan

We are now further in the distance from the previous image.

.

Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Khiva, Kukhna Ark, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan

Now we have turned around and are heading back towards the Kalta Minor.  The young boy is riding a modern contraption that I believe is called a bicycle.  An early traveller in the nineteenth century rode through Uzbekistan en route from England to India.  Locals who saw this strange unnatural apparition were either convulsed with laughter or recoiled in fear.

.

Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Khiva, Kukhna Ark, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan
We are now on the roof of the Kukhna Ark.  See previous post for more info.  From left to right, Tura Murad Minaret, Islam Khoja Minaret & the Pakhlavan Mahmud Mausoleum, Kalta Minor and Amin Khan Madrassah.

.
Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Khiva, Kukhna Ark, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan
Islam Khoja Minaret & the Pakhlavan Mahmud Mausoleum.  (I mislabelled an image of this in the previous post, since corrected).

.
Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Khiva, Kukhna Ark, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan
Ceramic tiles near the top of the Kalta Minor.

.
Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Khiva, Kukhna Ark, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan
The wooden structure is the Terrassa Restaurant, where we have dinner that night and I produce night images from there in the next post.

.
Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Khiva, Kukhna Ark, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan
Detail of Amin Khan Madrassah.

.
Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Khiva, Kukhna Ark, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan
A corner of the Muhammad Rahim-khan Madrasah, next door to the Tura Murad Minaret.

.
Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Khiva, Kukhna Ark, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan
No idea of the name of this minaret.

.
Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Khiva, Kukhna Ark, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan
I think we are looking south at the west wall of the Amin Khan Madrassah and the old city walls.

.
Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Khiva, Kukhna Ark, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan
Muhammad Rahim-khan Madrasah and the Tura Murad Minaret.

.
Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Khiva, Kukhna Ark, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan
Many of these images are not possible to place.

.
Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Khiva, Kukhna Ark, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan
.

.
Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Khiva, Kukhna Ark, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan
However, this must be the dome of the Amin Khan Madrassah.

.
Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Khiva, Kukhna Ark, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan
Down below me, a workman was sawing away at something in a reconstruction area.

.
Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Khiva, Kukhna Ark, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan
I turned away to photograph this old madrassah (?).  You can see how many of the tiles have fallen off.  Then I heard a loud crash.

.
Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Khiva, Kukhna Ark, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan
The workman had sawn away a supporting beam and demolished a wall.

.
Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Khiva, Kukhna Ark, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan
With these long telephoto shots, I can’t identify exactly where it is….

.
Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Khiva, Kukhna Ark, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan
.

.
Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Khiva, Kukhna Ark, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan
.

.
Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Khiva, Kukhna Ark, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan
.

.
Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Khiva, Kukhna Ark, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan
.

.
Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Khiva, Kukhna Ark, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan
.

.

Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Khiva, Kukhna Ark, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan.

.
Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Khiva, Kukhna Ark, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan
.

.
Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Khiva, Kukhna Ark, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan
Two young women below, maybe walking home after shopping, one wearing a dress with a wonderful traditional design.

.

Kukhna Ark, Khiva

Khiva, Uzbekistan
28 September 2018.

(Click on any image to see it in a larger size.)
.

Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Khiva, Kukhna Ark, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan

Here we are arriving at the city walls of Khiva.

Khiva was built close to the Amu Darya River though the river now flows elsewhere.  It is also close to the border with Turkmenistan and on the other side of the border there is desert.  It is part of the Khorezm, a fertile area surrounded by deserts that has been a centre of civilisations for about four thousand years.  From 1077 until 1231 (when the Mongols turned up after their emissaries were executed) the Khorezm was the centre of the Kwarazmian Empire, including Persia, Afghanistan and much of central Asia.  The Amu Darya was known as the Oxus to the Greeks and Romans, for example in the time of Alexander the Great.

.
Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Khiva, Kukhna Ark, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan

There has been a settlement at Khiva, a depot on the silk road, for two thousand years or more and parts of the city walls are thought to date from the fifth century, but it has only been a significant city since the sixteenth century.  That century saw the foundation of the Khanate of Khorezm and the shift of the capital from Kunya Urgench (now in Turkmenistan) to Khiva.  For some centuries it was a regional powerhouse.
.
Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Khiva, Kukhna Ark, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan

The Russians first turned up in 1717 with 4,000 troops who were welcomed, ushered to quarters and then slaughtered.  In 1839-40, another army of 5,000 (with 10,000 camels) set out to achieve revenge but perished in the desert.  The Russians finally turned up in 1873.  After the Revolution in 1920 there was briefly the Khorezm People’s Republic until it was incorporated into the Soviet Union in 1924 and divided between the Uzbek and Turkmen SSRs.  Uzbekistan became independent in 1991.
.
Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Khiva, Kukhna Ark, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan

Street markets, on the other side of the West Gate.

.
Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Khiva, Kukhna Ark, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan

Some goods in the street.

.
Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Khiva, Kukhna Ark, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan

A map of the old city.  We entered from the gate at the bottom.

.
Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Khiva, Kukhna Ark, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan

This is the door to our accommodation, the Mohammed Amin Khan Madrassah (or the Orient Star Khiva Hotel).

.
Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Khiva, Kukhna Ark, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan

… and here is the interior courtyard.

.
Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Khiva, Kukhna Ark, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan

This is the top of the Kalta Minor (or Short Minaret).

It was commissioned by Mohammed Amin Khan (or Medamin) in 1852 and was intended to be 70 meters high but was abandoned at 26 metres after his death in 1856.
.
Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Khiva, Kukhna Ark, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan

A couple of partly corrected views using a fisheye lens which remain distorted but show something of the sense of scale.

.
Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Khiva, Kukhna Ark, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan

.
.
Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Khiva, Kukhna Ark, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan

Across an open courtyard with the Kalta Minor in the distance.  The open doorway in the middle distance is I think the Information Centre, the small rectangular building at the right is the Zindan or jail and we are heading through the doorway at the right, into the Kuhkna Ark, or the Museum of Ancient Khorezm.
.
Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Khiva, Kukhna Ark, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan

… and in we go,,,

.
Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Khiva, Kukhna Ark, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan

This is not the main door to the Ark, it must be another one just inside.

.
Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Khiva, Kukhna Ark, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan

The Khans of Khiva had several residences but this is the original one and since it is fortified, it was a place of refuge in times of uncertainty.

.
Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Khiva, Kukhna Ark, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan

This is the Summer Mosque (1838) with tiles by Ibadullah and Abdullah Jin.

.
Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Khiva, Kukhna Ark, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan

Here is a closeup of some of the tiles.  My partner Jools who graduated in ceramics, tells me the glazing shows a high level of proficiency.

.
Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Khiva, Kukhna Ark, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan .
.
Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Khiva, Kukhna Ark, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan .
.
Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Khiva, Kukhna Ark, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan

A section of the ceiling.

.
Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Khiva, Kukhna Ark, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan

Opportunity missed.  These caps look more interesting than some of the ones I purchased in Bukhara and Samarkand.

.
Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Khiva, Kukhna Ark, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan

From the Summer Mosque, we move on through the doorway at the right.

.
Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Khiva, Kukhna Ark, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan

On the other side are a few guards or policemen.  Three different uniforms and the ones one the right say “Milliy Gvardia” on the back meaning Uzbekistan National Guard so they are soldiers.  Probably all of them are.

.
Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Khiva, Kukhna Ark, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan

This is the Khurinish Khana or Throne room. There used to be a wooden throne gilded in silver but that was carried off to St Petersberg by the Russians and never returned.  Receptions were either in the (open three-sided) iwan in summer or in a warm yurt in winter, erected where the circular stonework is.

Uzbekistan these days is very safe and friendly but in the nineteenth century Khiva wasn’t a democracy and there could be savage penalties for minor infractions of religious rules.
.
Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Khiva, Kukhna Ark, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan

The top of a section of the walls.

.
Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Khiva, Kukhna Ark, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan

People from nearby areas come to the historic sites for wedding photos.  In this case a conjuring trick – the bride floating in the air.

.
Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Khiva, Kukhna Ark, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan

Behind them we see the crenulated outer wall of Khiva, potentially giving covering fire from a variety of angles.

.
Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Khiva, Kukhna Ark, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan

A view to the south west.

.
Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Khiva, Kukhna Ark, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan

Islam Khoja Minaret & the Pakhlavan Mahmud Mausoleum.

.

.
Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Khiva, Kukhna Ark, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan

Kalta Minor and Amin Khan Madrassah (where we were staying).

.
Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Khiva, Kukhna Ark, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan

The Chinese New Silk Road is arriving in Uzbekistan, it seems.

.
Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Khiva, Kukhna Ark, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan

Crenulated city walls again.

.
Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Khiva, Kukhna Ark, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan

Tower and walls in the Ark.

.
Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Khiva, Kukhna Ark, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan

Part of an ancient door inside the Ark.

.
Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Khiva, Kukhna Ark, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan

… which we have now left.

.
Architecture, Art, Ceramics, History, Khiva, Kukhna Ark, Landscape, Photography, Street photography, Travel, Uzbekistan

Looking back at the entrance to the Ark.

.

(More on Khiva in the next post).

.

(Technical note:  I processed these images in both Lightroom and Capture One.  About half are from each and three were processed in Lightroom and Photoshop.  Capture One has an advantage over Lightroom with selections and masks (so for processing regions), where colour is an issue, or with clarity.  Most of these images just received overall processing though.  If anyone wants to see whether they can detect any difference, images 1, 5, 8, 9, 13, 19, 20, 22, 23, 24, 25, 27, 28, 29,32, 33 36 and 37 were processed in Capture One, while images 10, 11 and 30 were processed in Lightroom and Photoshop.)

Salton Sea Monochromes

1 to 5 October 2016, Salton Sea, California, USA.

Links go to colour posts (for more information and context). If an image does not have a link, the preceding one applies.

Click on any image to see it larger.

.

Art, Black and White, Ecology, Infrared, Landscape, Monochrome, Nature, Photography, Salton Sea, Sculpture, Slab City, Travel, Wildlife

This car may be going cheap, though also not going at all.

Salton Sea (IR).

 

Art, Black and White, Ecology, Infrared, Landscape, Monochrome, Nature, Photography, Salton Sea, Sculpture, Slab City, Travel, Wildlife .

.

Art, Black and White, Ecology, Infrared, Landscape, Monochrome, Nature, Photography, Salton Sea, Sculpture, Slab City, Travel, Wildlife

North shore palms.

.

Art, Black and White, Ecology, Infrared, Landscape, Monochrome, Nature, Photography, Salton Sea, Sculpture, Slab City, Travel, Wildlife

Dead fish by an endangered sea.

.

Art, Black and White, Ecology, Infrared, Landscape, Monochrome, Nature, Photography, Salton Sea, Sculpture, Slab City, Travel, Wildlife

Bombay Beach.

Salton Sea

.

Art, Black and White, Ecology, Infrared, Landscape, Monochrome, Nature, Photography, Salton Sea, Sculpture, Slab City, Travel, Wildlife .

.

Art, Black and White, Ecology, Infrared, Landscape, Monochrome, Nature, Photography, Salton Sea, Sculpture, Slab City, Travel, Wildlife .

.

Art, Black and White, Ecology, Infrared, Landscape, Monochrome, Nature, Photography, Salton Sea, Sculpture, Slab City, Travel, Wildlife

Slab City.

.

Art, Black and White, Ecology, Infrared, Landscape, Monochrome, Nature, Photography, Salton Sea, Sculpture, Slab City, Travel, Wildlife .

.

Art, Black and White, Ecology, Infrared, Landscape, Monochrome, Nature, Photography, Salton Sea, Sculpture, Slab City, Travel, Wildlife .

.

Art, Black and White, Ecology, Infrared, Landscape, Monochrome, Nature, Photography, Salton Sea, Sculpture, Slab City, Travel, Wildlife .

.

Art, Black and White, Ecology, Infrared, Landscape, Monochrome, Nature, Photography, Salton Sea, Sculpture, Slab City, Travel, Wildlife .

.

Art, Black and White, Ecology, Infrared, Landscape, Monochrome, Nature, Photography, Salton Sea, Sculpture, Slab City, Travel, Wildlife .

.

Art, Black and White, Ecology, Infrared, Landscape, Monochrome, Nature, Photography, Salton Sea, Sculpture, Slab City, Travel, Wildlife .

.

Art, Black and White, Ecology, Infrared, Landscape, Monochrome, Nature, Photography, Salton Sea, Sculpture, Slab City, Travel, Wildlife

Slab City.

Salton Sea (IR).

.

Art, Black and White, Ecology, Infrared, Landscape, Monochrome, Nature, Photography, Salton Sea, Sculpture, Slab City, Travel, Wildlife

Salton Sea.

.

Art, Black and White, Ecology, Infrared, Landscape, Monochrome, Nature, Photography, Salton Sea, Sculpture, Slab City, Travel, Wildlife .

.

Art, Black and White, Ecology, Infrared, Landscape, Monochrome, Nature, Photography, Salton Sea, Sculpture, Slab City, Travel, Wildlife

Mud Volcano.

Birds and Mud Volcanoes.

.

Art, Black and White, Ecology, Infrared, Landscape, Monochrome, Nature, Photography, Salton Sea, Sculpture, Slab City, Travel, Wildlife

Hummingbird.

.

L.A. and Salton Sea Monochromes

1 to 5 October 2016, Los Angeles and Salton Sea, USA.

Links go to colour posts (for more information and context). If an image does not have a link, the preceding one applies.

Click on any image to see it larger.

.

Art, Black and White, Infrared, Landscape, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Monochrome, Nature, Photography, Salton Sea, Sculpture, Travel, Wilderness

Colombian Mammoth (Mammathus Columbi)

La Brea Tar Pits.

.

Art, Black and White, Infrared, Landscape, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Monochrome, Nature, Photography, Salton Sea, Sculpture, Travel, Wilderness

Chest of drawers from the 18th century Japan.

Netsuke Gallery, LACMA.

.

Art, Black and White, Infrared, Landscape, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Monochrome, Nature, Photography, Salton Sea, Sculpture, Travel, Wilderness

Netsuke.

.

Art, Black and White, Infrared, Landscape, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Monochrome, Nature, Photography, Salton Sea, Sculpture, Travel, Wilderness

Buddha Shakyamuni, Sukothai, Thailand, 14th-15th century.

Los Angeles County Museum of Art (LACMA).

.

Art, Black and White, Infrared, Landscape, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Monochrome, Nature, Photography, Salton Sea, Sculpture, Travel, Wilderness

Eagle-headed demon (Assyria).

.

Art, Black and White, Infrared, Landscape, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Monochrome, Nature, Photography, Salton Sea, Sculpture, Travel, Wilderness

Borrego Palm Canyon.

.

Art, Black and White, Infrared, Landscape, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Monochrome, Nature, Photography, Salton Sea, Sculpture, Travel, Wilderness

Desert cacti, perhaps clavellina cholla.

.

Art, Black and White, Infrared, Landscape, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Monochrome, Nature, Photography, Salton Sea, Sculpture, Travel, Wilderness

Gomphothere.

Encounters with Megafauna.

.

Art, Black and White, Infrared, Landscape, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Monochrome, Nature, Photography, Salton Sea, Sculpture, Travel, Wilderness

A locust or grasshopper and a scorpion.

.

Art, Black and White, Infrared, Landscape, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Monochrome, Nature, Photography, Salton Sea, Sculpture, Travel, Wilderness

Ground sloths.

.

Art, Black and White, Infrared, Landscape, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Monochrome, Nature, Photography, Salton Sea, Sculpture, Travel, Wilderness

Chinese dragon.

.

Art, Black and White, Infrared, Landscape, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Monochrome, Nature, Photography, Salton Sea, Sculpture, Travel, Wilderness

Humans in vehicle.

.

Art, Black and White, Infrared, Landscape, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Monochrome, Nature, Photography, Salton Sea, Sculpture, Travel, Wilderness

Salton Sea.

.

Art, Black and White, Infrared, Landscape, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Monochrome, Nature, Photography, Salton Sea, Sculpture, Travel, Wilderness

Dead fish on the salt.

.

Art, Black and White, Infrared, Landscape, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Monochrome, Nature, Photography, Salton Sea, Sculpture, Travel, Wilderness

The end, but of what?

.

Art, Black and White, Infrared, Landscape, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Monochrome, Nature, Photography, Salton Sea, Sculpture, Travel, Wilderness

Near Salton City.

Salton Sea (IR).

.

Art, Black and White, Infrared, Landscape, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Monochrome, Nature, Photography, Salton Sea, Sculpture, Travel, Wilderness

Probably at Desert Shores.

.

Art, Black and White, Infrared, Landscape, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Monochrome, Nature, Photography, Salton Sea, Sculpture, Travel, Wilderness

Trees in the desert.

.