From Havana to Santo Domingo

Havana, Cuba to Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, 12 September 2016

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I’ve just come back from a weekend covering the Thredbo Blues Festival and now have 3,000 images to process, so these posts may slow down a bit for a while.

On Monday around 12:30pm we were driving back from Thredbo. Normally I would have been playing table tennis and have had my car parked outside the centre. Had that been the case, the car would have been pulverised by hail, golf-ball sized or even larger. The windows would have been broken, all the panels dented and the car may have been written off.

Such are the incidents of the unfolding Climate Crisis. Especially with the current political corruption and paralysis, particularly in the US and Australia, it is merely a foretaste of what is to come, and not just in Australia.

Today there was also a fire burning on the edge of Canberra, just a few kilometres from where I live (though blowing in the opposite direction). Homes and an industrial area were threatened. A recycling centre is burning, creating hazardous smoke and Canberra Airport was closed for much of the day. Today was a high wind day. That fire is relatively under control but further high winds are forecast, including for a large area of south eastern New South Wales where there are several large fires burning out of control. Conversely, conditions may also be easing from tomorrow and the Indian Ocean Dipole (a major trigger) has now moved to neutral.

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OK, back to the Cuba/ Caribbean trip. This post shows images taken from the plane between Cuba and the Dominican Republic.

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Aerial Photography, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Landscape, Nature, Photography, seascape, Travel

We have taken off from Havana and are now flying east over Cuba.

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Aerial Photography, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Landscape, Nature, Photography, seascape, Travel

The farm land looks productive.

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Aerial Photography, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Landscape, Nature, Photography, seascape, Travel

Perhaps you have read of the insect apocalypse.  80% decline in insect numbers over the last forty years, perhaps worldwide, at least Europe and the US.  Global warming is a factor but probably a greater cause is use of insecticides and other agricultural poisons.  Perhaps Cuba is fortunate here, because US sanctions may mean they have no access to modern toxic chemicals from companies such as Monsanto.

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Aerial Photography, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Landscape, Nature, Photography, seascape, Travel

We’re still over Cuba, but now the coast and islands at the eastern end.

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Aerial Photography, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Landscape, Nature, Photography, seascape, Travel .

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Aerial Photography, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Landscape, Nature, Photography, seascape, Travel .

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Aerial Photography, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Landscape, Nature, Photography, seascape, Travel .

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Aerial Photography, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Landscape, Nature, Photography, seascape, Travel

I’m pretty sure this is the western tip of Haiti.

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Aerial Photography, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Landscape, Nature, Photography, seascape, Travel

For those with limited knowledge of geography, the island to the east of Cuba is Hispaniola, which is divided into Haiti to the west and the Dominican Republic to the east.

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Aerial Photography, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Landscape, Nature, Photography, seascape, Travel

I have read that you can see the boundary between Haiti and the Dominican Republic from space.  Haiti is quite deforested and the Dominican Republic not at all.

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Aerial Photography, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Landscape, Nature, Photography, seascape, Travel

This goes back to the days of the Trujillo dictatorship in the Dominican Republic (1930-1961).  Dictators are usually bad news but he preserved the forests and sent the army in to ruthlessly suppress illegal logging.  Haiti on the other hand is one of the poorest countries in the world with little effective government and the whole countryside was stripped bare.

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Aerial Photography, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Landscape, Nature, Photography, seascape, Travel

It was too cloudy for me to see the border between Haiti and the Dominican Republic.  We are by now over the Dominican Republic (and probably for one or two of the previous images).

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Aerial Photography, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Landscape, Nature, Photography, seascape, Travel

A large dam with a city near by.

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Aerial Photography, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Landscape, Nature, Photography, seascape, Travel

Agricultural land

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Aerial Photography, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Landscape, Nature, Photography, seascape, Travel .

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Aerial Photography, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Landscape, Nature, Photography, seascape, Travel

Probably the coast near Santo Domingo.

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Head in the Clouds (Lahad Datu to KK)

14 May 2019, Lahad Datu, Sabah, to Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

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These are images from two flights, from Ladah Datu to Kota Kinabalu in Sabah and from Kota Kinabalu to Kuala Lumpur. They are all monochrome conversions of infrared images.

When leaving on the plane from Lahad Datu I was instructed by a stewardess that I was not allowed to take photographs out the window during takeoff because the camera is an electronic device. That has never happened to me previously and astonished me as the camera is hardly going to be sending out wifi signals. Consequently, most of these images are of clouds.

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Aerial Photography, Black and White, Clouds, Infrared, Landscape, Nature, Photography, Sabah, Wilderness

Not long before, we took off from Lahad Datu in Eastern Sabah.

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Aerial Photography, Black and White, Clouds, Infrared, Landscape, Nature, Photography, Sabah, Wilderness

We are flying over Sabah.

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Aerial Photography, Black and White, Clouds, Infrared, Landscape, Nature, Photography, Sabah, Wilderness

Rivers and mainly cleared land below here.

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Aerial Photography, Black and White, Clouds, Infrared, Landscape, Nature, Photography, Sabah, Wilderness

The clouds could be quite majestic though.

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Aerial Photography, Black and White, Clouds, Infrared, Landscape, Nature, Photography, Sabah, Wilderness .

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Aerial Photography, Black and White, Clouds, Infrared, Landscape, Nature, Photography, Sabah, Wilderness .

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Aerial Photography, Black and White, Clouds, Infrared, Landscape, Nature, Photography, Sabah, Wilderness .

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Aerial Photography, Black and White, Clouds, Infrared, Landscape, Nature, Photography, Sabah, Wilderness

This is near Kota Kinabalu.  We have landed and taken off again.

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Aerial Photography, Black and White, Clouds, Infrared, Landscape, Nature, Photography, Sabah, Wilderness .

Aerial Photography, Black and White, Clouds, Infrared, Landscape, Nature, Photography, Sabah, Wilderness

I was able to photograph clouds over the South China Sea for a while until the visibility closed right in.

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Aerial Photography, Black and White, Clouds, Infrared, Landscape, Nature, Photography, Sabah, Wilderness .

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Aerial Photography, Black and White, Clouds, Infrared, Landscape, Nature, Photography, Sabah, Wilderness .

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Aerial Photography, Black and White, Clouds, Infrared, Landscape, Nature, Photography, Sabah, Wilderness .

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Aerial Photography, Black and White, Clouds, Infrared, Landscape, Nature, Photography, Sabah, Wilderness .

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Aerial Photography, Black and White, Clouds, Infrared, Landscape, Nature, Photography, Sabah, Wilderness .

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Aerial Photography, Black and White, Clouds, Infrared, Landscape, Nature, Photography, Sabah, Wilderness .

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Aerial Photography, Black and White, Clouds, Infrared, Landscape, Nature, Photography, Sabah, Wilderness

Now we are over mainland Malaysia.

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Aerial Photography, Black and White, Clouds, Infrared, Landscape, Nature, Photography, Sabah, Wilderness

A small sea-front village.

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Aerial Photography, Black and White, Clouds, Infrared, Landscape, Nature, Photography, Sabah, Wilderness

Workers’ cottages, probably, beside the ubiquitous palm oil plantations.

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Aerial Photography, Black and White, Clouds, Infrared, Landscape, Nature, Photography, Sabah, Wilderness

Palm Oil plantations.

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Aerial Photography, Black and White, Clouds, Infrared, Landscape, Nature, Photography, Sabah, Wilderness .

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Aerial Photography, Black and White, Clouds, Infrared, Landscape, Nature, Photography, Sabah, Wilderness .

This was the last post of our trip to Sabah.  You can see links to all the other posts in the Sabah Itinerary post.

Next, a return to the last few days in Havana in the Caribbean trip.

KL to KK (Kuala Lumpur to Kota Kinabalu)

Kuala Lumpur to Kota Kinabalu, South China Sea, 1 May 2019.
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The images in this post are taken from a plane above the South China Sea, flying from Kuala Lumpur to Kota Kinabalu, on my way to a two week wilderness photography excursion in Sabah, formerly British North Borneo.

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Aerial Photography, Infrared, Kota Kinabalu, Kuala Lumpur, Landscape, Photography, Sabah, seascape, Travel

Leaving KL Airport.

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Aerial Photography, Infrared, Kota Kinabalu, Kuala Lumpur, Landscape, Photography, Sabah, seascape, Travel

Still over the outskirts of KL.

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Aerial Photography, Infrared, Kota Kinabalu, Kuala Lumpur, Landscape, Photography, Sabah, seascape, Travel

Taking photographs from a plane requires a relatively clean window.  Internal reflections can be a problem and sometimes one side of the plane is better than the other.  A rubber lens hood against the window might help for the internal reflections. You need a high enough shutter speed to account for the vibrations of the plane.

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Aerial Photography, Infrared, Kota Kinabalu, Kuala Lumpur, Landscape, Photography, Sabah, seascape, Travel

Haze can be a problem but I don’t think a polarising filter would help as I think it would pick up diffracted colours from the plane’s windows.  Post processing is likely to make a big difference.  Infrared can help too as it tends to cut through the haze.

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Aerial Photography, Infrared, Kota Kinabalu, Kuala Lumpur, Landscape, Photography, Sabah, seascape, Travel

Islands in the South China Sea (I can’t work out from Google Earth exactly which ones).

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Aerial Photography, Infrared, Kota Kinabalu, Kuala Lumpur, Landscape, Photography, Sabah, seascape, Travel .

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Aerial Photography, Infrared, Kota Kinabalu, Kuala Lumpur, Landscape, Photography, Sabah, seascape, Travel

Coast of Sarawak.

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Aerial Photography, Infrared, Kota Kinabalu, Kuala Lumpur, Landscape, Photography, Sabah, seascape, Travel

This and the next one is probably the coast of Sabah, possibly Brunei.

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Aerial Photography, Infrared, Kota Kinabalu, Kuala Lumpur, Landscape, Photography, Sabah, seascape, Travel .

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Aerial Photography, Infrared, Kota Kinabalu, Kuala Lumpur, Landscape, Photography, Sabah, seascape, Travel

Approaching Kota Kinabalu.

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Aerial Photography, Infrared, Kota Kinabalu, Kuala Lumpur, Landscape, Photography, Sabah, seascape, Travel .

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Aerial Photography, Infrared, Kota Kinabalu, Kuala Lumpur, Landscape, Photography, Sabah, seascape, Travel .

All images are infrared, taken with a camera with a converted infrared sensor.  There is a lot of scope for variations in colour in processing colour infrared.

 

From Flores to Cancun

Guatemala, Belize, Mexico, 31 August 2016

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This follows a journey in two small planes from Flores in Guatemala to Cancun in Mexico via Belize.

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Aerial Photography, Belize, Guatemala, Infrared, Landscape, Mexico, Nature, Photography, Travel

This appears to be a small Mayan Temple from the modern era, in other words a church.

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Aerial Photography, Belize, Guatemala, Infrared, Landscape, Mexico, Nature, Photography, Travel

Soon we were flying over the red lakes of forgotten time in what was once the lands of the Maya and really still is.

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Aerial Photography, Belize, Guatemala, Infrared, Landscape, Mexico, Nature, Photography, Travel

Maybe there was once ancient Mayan irrigation canals here.

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Aerial Photography, Belize, Guatemala, Infrared, Landscape, Mexico, Nature, Photography, Travel

The land underneath started to be hidden by the golden clouds.

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Aerial Photography, Belize, Guatemala, Infrared, Landscape, Mexico, Nature, Photography, Travel

And after a while, Belize City hove into sight.

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Aerial Photography, Belize, Guatemala, Infrared, Landscape, Mexico, Nature, Photography, Travel

Soon we are flying over the Red Sea..

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Aerial Photography, Belize, Guatemala, Infrared, Landscape, Mexico, Nature, Photography, Travel

Many shallow islands below.

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Aerial Photography, Belize, Guatemala, Infrared, Landscape, Mexico, Nature, Photography, Travel

Well, the Caribbean Sea, actually.

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Aerial Photography, Belize, Guatemala, Infrared, Landscape, Mexico, Nature, Photography, Travel

The golden clouds of the late morning.

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Aerial Photography, Belize, Guatemala, Infrared, Landscape, Mexico, Nature, Photography, Travel

Memories of an asteroid crash nearby long ago flashed up…

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Aerial Photography, Belize, Guatemala, Infrared, Landscape, Mexico, Nature, Photography, Travel

… and then faded again quite quickly.

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Aerial Photography, Belize, Guatemala, Infrared, Landscape, Mexico, Nature, Photography, Travel

The weather began to seem almost normal.

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Aerial Photography, Belize, Guatemala, Infrared, Landscape, Mexico, Nature, Photography, Travel

But then, what’s normal anyway.

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Aerial Photography, Belize, Guatemala, Infrared, Landscape, Mexico, Nature, Photography, Travel

The edge of Cancun.

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And yes, that was an infrared post.

Valle de la Luna Monochromes

22nd to 23rd November 2015. Atacama Desert, Northern Chile.

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Links go to posts with the colour versions of the images (where there may also be more information). If an image does not have a link, the preceding one applies.

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Aerial Photography, Archaeology, Atacama Desert, Black and White, Chile, Landscape, Monochrome, Nature, Photography, Pukará de Quitor, San Pedro de Atacama, Tulor, Valle de la Luna, Wilderness

Aerial view, between Santiago and Calama.

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Aerial Photography, Archaeology, Atacama Desert, Black and White, Chile, Landscape, Monochrome, Nature, Photography, Pukará de Quitor, San Pedro de Atacama, Tulor, Valle de la Luna, Wilderness .

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Aerial Photography, Archaeology, Atacama Desert, Black and White, Chile, Landscape, Monochrome, Nature, Photography, Pukará de Quitor, San Pedro de Atacama, Tulor, Valle de la Luna, Wilderness

San Pedro de Atacama.

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Aerial Photography, Archaeology, Atacama Desert, Black and White, Chile, Landscape, Monochrome, Nature, Photography, Pukará de Quitor, San Pedro de Atacama, Tulor, Valle de la Luna, Wilderness .

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Aerial Photography, Archaeology, Atacama Desert, Black and White, Chile, Landscape, Monochrome, Nature, Photography, Pukará de Quitor, San Pedro de Atacama, Tulor, Valle de la Luna, Wilderness

Tulor.

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Aerial Photography, Archaeology, Atacama Desert, Black and White, Chile, Landscape, Monochrome, Nature, Photography, Pukará de Quitor, San Pedro de Atacama, Tulor, Valle de la Luna, Wilderness .

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Aerial Photography, Archaeology, Atacama Desert, Black and White, Chile, Landscape, Monochrome, Nature, Photography, Pukará de Quitor, San Pedro de Atacama, Tulor, Valle de la Luna, Wilderness .

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Aerial Photography, Archaeology, Atacama Desert, Black and White, Chile, Landscape, Monochrome, Nature, Photography, Pukará de Quitor, San Pedro de Atacama, Tulor, Valle de la Luna, Wilderness

Pukará de Quitor.

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Aerial Photography, Archaeology, Atacama Desert, Black and White, Chile, Landscape, Monochrome, Nature, Photography, Pukará de Quitor, San Pedro de Atacama, Tulor, Valle de la Luna, Wilderness .

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Aerial Photography, Archaeology, Atacama Desert, Black and White, Chile, Landscape, Monochrome, Nature, Photography, Pukará de Quitor, San Pedro de Atacama, Tulor, Valle de la Luna, Wilderness

Valle de la Luna (Moon Valley) Tour.

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Aerial Photography, Archaeology, Atacama Desert, Black and White, Chile, Landscape, Monochrome, Nature, Photography, Pukará de Quitor, San Pedro de Atacama, Tulor, Valle de la Luna, Wilderness

Coyote Leap.

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Aerial Photography, Archaeology, Atacama Desert, Black and White, Chile, Landscape, Monochrome, Nature, Photography, Pukará de Quitor, San Pedro de Atacama, Tulor, Valle de la Luna, Wilderness

Views from on high.

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Aerial Photography, Archaeology, Atacama Desert, Black and White, Chile, Landscape, Monochrome, Nature, Photography, Pukará de Quitor, San Pedro de Atacama, Tulor, Valle de la Luna, Wilderness .

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Aerial Photography, Archaeology, Atacama Desert, Black and White, Chile, Landscape, Monochrome, Nature, Photography, Pukará de Quitor, San Pedro de Atacama, Tulor, Valle de la Luna, Wilderness .

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Aerial Photography, Archaeology, Atacama Desert, Black and White, Chile, Landscape, Monochrome, Nature, Photography, Pukará de Quitor, San Pedro de Atacama, Tulor, Valle de la Luna, Wilderness .

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Aerial Photography, Archaeology, Atacama Desert, Black and White, Chile, Landscape, Monochrome, Nature, Photography, Pukará de Quitor, San Pedro de Atacama, Tulor, Valle de la Luna, Wilderness .

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Aerial Photography, Archaeology, Atacama Desert, Black and White, Chile, Landscape, Monochrome, Nature, Photography, Pukará de Quitor, San Pedro de Atacama, Tulor, Valle de la Luna, Wilderness

Valle de la Luna.

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Aerial Photography, Archaeology, Atacama Desert, Black and White, Chile, Landscape, Monochrome, Nature, Photography, Pukará de Quitor, San Pedro de Atacama, Tulor, Valle de la Luna, Wilderness .

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Aerial Photography, Archaeology, Atacama Desert, Black and White, Chile, Landscape, Monochrome, Nature, Photography, Pukará de Quitor, San Pedro de Atacama, Tulor, Valle de la Luna, Wilderness .

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Aerial Photography, Archaeology, Atacama Desert, Black and White, Chile, Landscape, Monochrome, Nature, Photography, Pukará de Quitor, San Pedro de Atacama, Tulor, Valle de la Luna, Wilderness .

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Aerial Photography, Archaeology, Atacama Desert, Black and White, Chile, Landscape, Monochrome, Nature, Photography, Pukará de Quitor, San Pedro de Atacama, Tulor, Valle de la Luna, Wilderness .

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Aerial Photography, Archaeology, Atacama Desert, Black and White, Chile, Landscape, Monochrome, Nature, Photography, Pukará de Quitor, San Pedro de Atacama, Tulor, Valle de la Luna, Wilderness .

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Valle de la Luna

23rd November 2015. Atacama Desert, Northern Chile.

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Aerial Photography, Atacama Desert, Chile, Landscape, Nature, Photography, Travel, Valle de la Luna, Wilderness

This and following posts are from excursions with Cosmo Andino Tours, who offer a great service.  This excursion was to Valle de la Luna (Moon Valley).

 

Aerial Photography, Atacama Desert, Chile, Landscape, Nature, Photography, Travel, Valle de la Luna, Wilderness

Coyote Leap.

I saw the cracks before I ventured there.  I assume from the fact that I’m writing this that I survived the experience.

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Aerial Photography, Atacama Desert, Chile, Landscape, Nature, Photography, Travel, Valle de la Luna, Wilderness

Valle de la Luna is about thirteen kilometres west of San Pedro de Atacama.

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Aerial Photography, Atacama Desert, Chile, Landscape, Nature, Photography, Travel, Valle de la Luna, Wilderness

It is a part of the Cordillera de la Sal (Salt Mountain Range).

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Aerial Photography, Atacama Desert, Chile, Landscape, Nature, Photography, Travel, Valle de la Luna, Wilderness

It is also inside Los Flamencos National Reserve and part of the Atacama Desert.

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Aerial Photography, Atacama Desert, Chile, Landscape, Nature, Photography, Travel, Valle de la Luna, Wilderness

Some magnificent viewpoints are available.

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Aerial Photography, Atacama Desert, Chile, Landscape, Nature, Photography, Travel, Valle de la Luna, Wilderness .

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Aerial Photography, Atacama Desert, Chile, Landscape, Nature, Photography, Travel, Valle de la Luna, Wilderness

Licancabur volcano, creating the moon in a virtual eruption.

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Aerial Photography, Atacama Desert, Chile, Landscape, Nature, Photography, Travel, Valle de la Luna, Wilderness

… and the moon flies away like a balloon.

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Aerial Photography, Atacama Desert, Chile, Landscape, Nature, Photography, Travel, Valle de la Luna, Wilderness

Valle de la Luna is comprised of sand, stone and salt. It is a totally arid area without any precipitation.

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Aerial Photography, Atacama Desert, Chile, Landscape, Nature, Photography, Travel, Valle de la Luna, Wilderness .

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Aerial Photography, Atacama Desert, Chile, Landscape, Nature, Photography, Travel, Valle de la Luna, Wilderness .

 

Aerial Photography, Atacama Desert, Chile, Landscape, Nature, Photography, Travel, Valle de la Luna, Wilderness .

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Aerial Photography, Atacama Desert, Chile, Landscape, Nature, Photography, Travel, Valle de la Luna, Wilderness .

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Aerial Photography, Atacama Desert, Chile, Landscape, Nature, Photography, Travel, Valle de la Luna, Wilderness .

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Aerial Photography, Atacama Desert, Chile, Landscape, Nature, Photography, Travel, Valle de la Luna, Wilderness

The dramatic shapes were created by geological folding under a dry salt lake.

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Aerial Photography, Atacama Desert, Chile, Landscape, Nature, Photography, Travel, Valle de la Luna, Wilderness .

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Aerial Photography, Atacama Desert, Chile, Landscape, Nature, Photography, Travel, Valle de la Luna, Wilderness .

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Aerial Photography, Atacama Desert, Chile, Landscape, Nature, Photography, Travel, Valle de la Luna, Wilderness .

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Aerial Photography, Atacama Desert, Chile, Landscape, Nature, Photography, Travel, Valle de la Luna, Wilderness .

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Aerial Photography, Atacama Desert, Chile, Landscape, Nature, Photography, Travel, Valle de la Luna, Wilderness .

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Aerial Photography, Atacama Desert, Chile, Landscape, Nature, Photography, Travel, Valle de la Luna, Wilderness

Colours are heightened by the sunset.

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Aerial Photography, Atacama Desert, Chile, Landscape, Nature, Photography, Travel, Valle de la Luna, Wilderness .

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Tulor and Pukará de Quitor

23rd November 2015. Atacama Desert, Northern Chile.

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In the first morning of my visit to the Atacama Desert, I joined a local archæological tour.

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Aerial Photography, Atacama Desert, Chile, Landscape, Nature, Photography, Pukará de Quitor, Travel, Tulor, Wilderness.

First we visited the ancient village of Tulor.  As the sign says, the village dates from 800BC to 500AD.

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Aerial Photography, Atacama Desert, Chile, Landscape, Nature, Photography, Pukará de Quitor, Travel, Tulor, Wilderness

The area is a desert environment today but would not have been as dry when people lived here.

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Aerial Photography, Atacama Desert, Chile, Landscape, Nature, Photography, Pukará de Quitor, Travel, Tulor, Wilderness

We are walking towards a couple of recreated houses.

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Aerial Photography, Atacama Desert, Chile, Landscape, Nature, Photography, Pukará de Quitor, Travel, Tulor, Wilderness .

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Aerial Photography, Atacama Desert, Chile, Landscape, Nature, Photography, Pukará de Quitor, Travel, Tulor, Wilderness .

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Aerial Photography, Atacama Desert, Chile, Landscape, Nature, Photography, Pukará de Quitor, Travel, Tulor, Wilderness

Inside, we can see something of the way they were built.

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Aerial Photography, Atacama Desert, Chile, Landscape, Nature, Photography, Pukará de Quitor, Travel, Tulor, Wilderness

This woman may have been sitting at the empty fireplace for a very long time.

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Aerial Photography, Atacama Desert, Chile, Landscape, Nature, Photography, Pukará de Quitor, Travel, Tulor, Wilderness

View through the door (as the guide was trying to hurry me on).

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Aerial Photography, Atacama Desert, Chile, Landscape, Nature, Photography, Pukará de Quitor, Travel, Tulor, Wilderness

Remains of the actual dwellings.  The village was at an oasis and was abandoned when the oasis dried up.  It is not well protected and is slowly eroding away.

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Aerial Photography, Atacama Desert, Chile, Landscape, Nature, Photography, Pukará de Quitor, Travel, Tulor, Wilderness

I think this is a llama (rather than an alpaca).  In the oasis near our next destination.

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Aerial Photography, Atacama Desert, Chile, Landscape, Nature, Photography, Pukará de Quitor, Travel, Tulor, Wilderness

And that is Pukará de Quitor, which the Spanish conquistadors besieged and took in 1540.

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Aerial Photography, Atacama Desert, Chile, Landscape, Nature, Photography, Pukará de Quitor, Travel, Tulor, Wilderness

The fortress was built around 1200 by the Atacameño people, who occupied the land from around 8,000BC.

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Aerial Photography, Atacama Desert, Chile, Landscape, Nature, Photography, Pukará de Quitor, Travel, Tulor, Wilderness

The Tiwanaka people were overlords from 400 to 1000AD and the Incas shortly before the Spanish Conquest.

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Aerial Photography, Atacama Desert, Chile, Landscape, Nature, Photography, Pukará de Quitor, Travel, Tulor, Wilderness

As you can see, it it a large fortification, protected by a gorge on the other side.  The Spanish took it with the aid of Yanacona Indians.  They then executed 300 of the local defenders and displayed the heads on poles.  At that time, it became known as “the City of the Heads”.

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Aerial Photography, Atacama Desert, Chile, Landscape, Nature, Photography, Pukará de Quitor, Travel, Tulor, Wilderness

The oasis it was built beside is still there.

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