The Need for Speed

This is a post about building the ultimate PC for photographic processing.  While the principles are useful. it is fairly technical and for most people the other article Computers for Photography will be more appropriate.
(Note: This is still an interim update).



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The super-fast tongue

(Panther Chameleon, Peyrieras Nature Reserve, Madagascar).

From the images I took, at 9 frames per second, I estimate the full extension of the tongue takes about 1/5th of a second.



COVID-19 may impel many people to upgrade their PC, either for working from home or because they are now going to spend more time there. I am also going through this process, though both my cause and my objective is different. I need to replace the motherboard of my PC and I am looking to upgrade my PC specifically for heavy duty photographic processing.

I have both Nikon and Fuji cameras. My main Nikon camera is 47MP which produces very large files (52MP) and for either Nikon or Fuji I may perform computer-intensive operations to combine many exposures. This can be for increased depth of field, extending tonal range, creating panoramas or some combination of those. Processing infrared images in Photoshop and scanning film can also be demanding on resources.

Many of these operations I either was not performing or with much smaller files when I last upgraded my motherboard. Therefore I prefer to take account of these greater tasks and the possibility they may increase in the future in ways I now don’t anticipate. I hope that if I have a more efficient computer I may be able to free up some of the time I now spend processing.

I’m hoping that anyone can understand what I write and that it will also be useful to people with detailed knowledge. I’m definitely aiming at a high-end PC but I’ll also cover alternatives for people who have lesser financial resources or lesser processing needs. Feel free to ask questions.

I have already written an article on Computers for Photography which is more general than this one and which contains links to other informative sites. This article includes new technology that is not covered in any of those links.


Priority for Speed

My main objective is a search for processing speed. As linked to in my earlier article, Image Science suggests that the order of priority for spending money on a computer is:

  1. Monitor and Calibrator
  2. Disks
  3. Fast Ram
  4. Video Card
  5. Processor
  6. Motherboard
  7. Case


Some Component Considerations

– Types of Hard Disks

I’m going to ignore the monitor and calibrator here (See information on that in the other article). The next priority is disks and the reason for that is that different types of disks and different combinations of them have very different speeds.  Note also that I’m talking about disks and not drives.  You might have a C drive and a D drive that are merely logical partitions of the same physical disk.  Here I’m referring to the physical disks.

  • Disks can be SATA or NVMe. SATA disks are usually powered by SATA cables though sometimes can mount directly to the motherboard. NVME disks mount directly to the motherboard and are much faster.
  • HDDs or spinning disks are those big heavy things that have been around for decades. They are one kind of SATA disk. An example is the Western Digital (WD) Black, which spins at 7200rpm. Another example is the WD Blue, which spins at 5400rpm and is slower.
  • Standard SSDs are small and oblong but squarish, and also SATA. They don’t have moving parts and are rather like a big USB stick. They are faster and more expensive than HDDs and many people use them as their C Drives or boot disks.
  • M.2 SSDs are a more recent standard. They are long and thin and smaller than a “normal” SSD and mount directly to the motherboard.
    • SATA M.2 SSDs have about the same speed and cost as a “normal” SSD.
    • NVMe M.2 SSDs are more expensive and significantly faster.
  • Your motherboard can also allow you to combine disks in a RAID array either for increased speed or increased security or both. They are usually of the same model and capacity of hard drive and can be SATA or NVMe and HDD. or SSDs. There are four different kinds of RAID. Let’s say we have four hard disks.
    • RAID 0 writes to all disks simultaneously and appears as one disk. The four disks make it four times as fast as a single disk but if one disk fails, you lose all the data on the RAID.
    • RAID 1 appears as two disks but each of those virtual disks contains two disks, one of which has a copy of the other disk. You lose no data if a disk fails and the speed is the same as a single disk.
    • RAID 5 appears as one disk, simultaneously writes to three disks and uses one disk for data validation. You should able to recover your data if a disk fails. It is about twice as fast as a single disk.
    • RAID 10 appears as one disk, simultaneously writes to two disks and uses two disks for data validation. You should able to recover your data if a disk fails and maybe also if two disks fail, depending on which ones. It is twice as fast as a single disk.
    • Some people have experienced problems with the reliability of HDD RAID but this has improved over the years, and SSD RAID should be more reliable than HDD RAID


– The Hard Disk Race for Speed

So how do these disks compare for speed? Let’s have a race to find out.


Asus Hyper M.2 x16 Card, Backup, Computer Upgrades, Computers, Equipment, Laptops, Motherboards, Photography

Serpent Column and Thurmose III’s Obelisk at Constantinople Hippodrome.


This is an image from the Hippodrome of Constantinople/. This is where they did their chariot racing, at least until Constantinople was occupied during the Second Crusade in 1202. The first event of the ancient Greek Olympics is also believed to be a chariot race. Chariot racing was the pinnacle of speed in the ancient world.

In the background is the Obelisk of Thutmose III, Pharaoh 1479-1425 BC. It was brought to Constantinople in 390AD, and only the top third survives. In the foreground is the Serpent Column. This was originally erected in Delphi in 478 BC to commemorate the final defeat of the Persian army at the Battle of Plataea. It originally had three serpent heads that supported a golden bowl but the bowl was lost or stolen during the Third Crusade and the heads fell off in 1700. (The upper jaw of one remains in the Istanbul Archaeology Museum). Both of these were on the Spina, or the ridge in the middle of the Hippodrome that the chariots raced around.

These days we have various kinds of football clubs (though currently inactive due to COVID-19). The Hippodrome crowds divided into Blue and Green factions (and originally there were also Red and White). They were also a bit like criminal gangs, and disputative to the extent of starting civil war. The Constantinople Hippodrome was 750 metres long and 220 metres wide (including seating). A lap was about a kilometre and a race was 7 laps, so the race was over 7 kilometres. There were two very tight turns at the end of the track for each lap. For the main races, the chariots were pulled by four horses.


– and we’re off and racing!

The Hippodrome is U-shaped and the mouth of the U houses the starting bays. We have six chariots lining up for the race, representing different hard disks. We have a WD Blue HDD, a WD Black HDD, a 4 disk RAID 5 array of WD Red HDDs, a Samsung 860 EVO SSD, a Samsung M.2 PCIe 970 EVO Plus SSD and a 4 disk RAID 0 array of Samsung M.2 PCIe 970 EVO Plus SSDs. (Times will correspond to read times, write times are somewhat slower.)

The 7 kilometre race is over in 8 minutes 25 seconds, won of course by the 4 disk Samsung M.2 PCIe 970 EVO Plus SSD RAID 0. After all, it is a new chariot pulled by four strong horses. In that time, the WD Blue has covered 90 metres. I guess you can’t expect too much from a donkey and a cart. In the same time, the WD Black covered 125 metres, the WD Red RAID 5 array 200 metres and the Samsung 860 Pro SSD 460 metres. All of these have been lapped seven times and didn’t make the first turn, at 500 metres. The single Samsung M.2 PCIe 970 EVO Plus SSD did better, completing one and three quarter laps, or 1,750 metres, and was lapped only six times.


– Costs of Horses and Chariots (or Hard Drives in modern parlance)

Of course there’s a cost for better and more high tech chariots, quicker stronger horses and more accomplished charioteers, or in general, for increased performance. This also applies to the different kinds of hard drives. If we take one terabyte disks as an example, a WD Blue HDD costs about $70, a WD Red HDD $95, a WD Black HDD $135, a Samsung 860 EVO SSD $260 and a Samsung M.2 PCIe 970 EVO Plus SSD $350. (Current prices in Australian dollars, though they may change quickly in these times). There are always compromises but square wheels don’t help much in chariot races while only the generals can afford horses from the Arabian Peninsula.

The kind of disk you choose and whether you combine them can have a huge effect. So this is why disks are the most important component in computer speed these days.


– USB and disks

Speed of disks is one thing, if you need to connect an external disk to your computer, the connection speed or USB speed is another. This should be straightforward but a number of aspects are unnecessarily confusing. Speed is commonly given in Gbps – but that’s not Gigabytes per second, it’s gigabits per second and there are eight bits to a byte. Also, the changes in naming conventions have become downright bizarre. I’ll give a summary here and express speeds as megabytes per second with Gbps in brackets. Then I’ll explain how that compares to speeds for the different kinds of disks.

  • USB 2 has a speed of 60MB/sec (480Mbps)
  • USB 3.0 has a speed of 625MB/sec (5Gbps)
    • but its name has changed to USB 3.1 Gen 1, then USB 3.2 Gen 1 and all names are concurrent (!)
  • USB 3.1 has a speed of 1250MB/sec (10Gbps)
    • Name changed to USB 3.1 Gen 2, then USB 3.2 Gen 2. Equivalent to Thunderbolt 1.
  • USB 3.2 has a speed of 2500MB/sec (20Gbps)
    • Name changed to USB 3.2 Gen 2×2. Equivalent to Thunderbolt 2.
  • USB 4 will have a speed of 5000MB/sec (40Gbps) but is not yet generally available.
    • It is equivalent to Thunderbolt 3.
  • Note that USB-C merely refers to a different plug though is usually USB 3.1 or higher.

Now let’s compare that to hard disk speeds.

  • A big heavy clunking hard drive (HDD) has a speed of say 120MB/sec to 150MB/sec. So connecting it with USB 2 will slow it down by 50% or more but USB 3.0 will work fine. Anything more than USB 3.0 will work but will be superfluous though because the HDD can’t match the connection speed.
  • A smaller squarish SATA SSD (or a SATA M.2 SSD) will have a speed of around 500MB/sec. In this case, connecting it with USB 2 will slow it down by nearly 90% but USB 3.0 will be fine and anything higher will work but be superfluous.
  • The very small oblong NVMe M.2 SSD (and not the identical-looking SATA M.2 SSD) will have a speed of 1700MB/sec to 2400MB/sec. So you need USB 3.2 to take full advantage of this one. This is an emerging option but you can already get relatively inexpensive and compact NVMe M.2 enclosures and plug them into a USB port. (This would be the ultimate option for backup while travelling).


A normal approach to a fast photographic PC

Now the usual approach to upgrading the motherboard for a reasonably fast photographic PC would be as follows:

  • You’d want a motherboard with DDR4 RAM and it would be good to have at least two M.2 PCIe ports. There are lots of choices, one is an Asus Prime H370-A for around $200. It needs to be able to fit into your case though (This one is for an ATX motherboard. You can have micro ATX, ATX and extended ATX cases).
  • Then the CPU, though you really don’t need the fastest and most expensive CPU. You might get an Intel i7-9700 CPU, perhaps an i7-9700F for about $550.
  • You’d also need an appropriate CPU cooler from maybe $60 to $150. (Also needs to fit in the case).
  • Then you might add say 32GB RAM from a good brand such as G.Skill or Corsair for between $230 and $300. (You could also get by with 16GB though 32GB is better for Lightroom and Photoshop).
  • You’ll also need a suitable graphics card but it doesn’t need to be a high end one, perhaps a GTX 1660 with 6GB memory for around $360.
  • Then you’d need to add hard disks which you might be able to transfer from your existing PC. With this motherboard you could add up to six SATA disks, which could include an SSD as a boot drive (C Drive). Then you have two M.2 PCIe SSDs as fast processing drives. Alternatively, don’t have the SSD and have one M.2 PCIe SSD as your boot drive and a larger one as your processing drive.


The approach I’ve taken

I’ve opted for seriously fast processing disks, including four M.2 PCIe SSDs combined in a RAID array. This is the chariot and four horses that can blitz the field at the Hippodrome. To do that I’m using an Asus Hyper M.2 x16 card which can mount four such SSDs. You can see a detailed overview of it in this review (which has six pages, in case that’s not obvious).

– CPU, Motherboard and PCIe Card

You will have a number of slots on your motherboard called PCIe slots that you can mount cards in and they come in different lengths. You probably have a graphics card in one of the full-length ones. You can also have different cards for different purposes and one such card is the Asus Hyper M.2 x16 card. It is only $90 which makes it sound like a cheap option but to mount all four SSDs you need another fully powered full length (x16) slot. This requires an expensive CPU and motherboard. Specifically, you need a CPU that supports at least 44 “PCIe lanes”. So in terms of Intel CPUs, neither an i7 9700 nor an i9 9900 fit the bill and I went for an i9 10900X ($1070). For the motherboard I went for an Asus Prime X299-A II ($600).

I have 6.7TB of data, including 6TB for photographic images. The old computer had a 2TBx4 RAID 10 array for 4TB of storage plus a 6TB WD Black and a 500GB M.2 PCIe SSD. I had 2.9TB on the RAID 10 for images, 3.4TB on the WD Black for older images and other files, and 365GB on the M.2 SSD for the Lightroom Catalogue. There was also a 256GB SSD for the boot drive. (It is essential to have at least 10% free space on a drive and preferably 20% or it may become unreliable.)

I intended to have both a SATA RAID 5 of HDDs on the new computer as well as a RAID of NVMe SSDs. It was only later I found out in Intel FAQs that I couldn’t have both (Asus documentation didn’t cover that and Asus Support didn’t know). So since the NVMe SSDs are much faster than SATA HDDs, I’ve opted for an NVMe RAID and single SATA HDDs. So I’ll keep the 6TB WD Black, I’m currently using another HDD and I may replace that with a 4TB WD Black later. I chose an Intel option because it seemed to offer a SATA RAID 5. Had I realised that wasn’t going to work, I probably would have opted for AMD which is currently cheaper and more powerful.


– M.2 NVMe SSDs

The new motherboard allows up to three M.2 NVMe SSDs on the motherboard. I have a Samsung 960 EVO in one as my boot disk and a Samsung 970 EVO Plus in another for my Capture One catalog. I also expect to have four 500GB M.2 NVME SSDs on an Asus Hyper M.2 x16 card which I have specified as a RAID 0 array using Intel Virtual RAID from CPU or VROC. They are Intel 760p SSDs and for X299 motherboards they have to be Intel SSDs which is another thing not mentioned in the Asus documentation but that I found later in an Intel FAQ.

People with older PCs can potentially add an Asus Hyper M.2 x16 card to get an M.2 slot even where the motherboard doesn’t already have one. Your CPU won’t support a VROC RAID but depending on your CPU and the PCIe lanes on your motherboard, the card will support one or two M.2 SSDs, though not the full four.


– RAID 0 Precautions

RAID 0 gives a very fast drive but if any of the SSDs fall over, all the data is lost. This may be a bridge too far for some people but here is why I am comfortable with it.

  1. I have everything backed up to a local Drobo and to the Cloud. The Drobo is a black box of drives connected to the PC and I back up using Acronis. For my Cloud backup I use CrashPlan though for most people BackBlaze is cheaper and would be sufficient. For more on backup see my article Backup for Photographers.
  2. My Lightroom catalog will be on the RAID 0 drive. I have a separate and frequent backup for just that catalog. Lightroom working files can take up a lot of space but most of that is previews. Currently my Lightroom working files take up 350GB but the catalog itself is only 2.4GB. It’s not essential to get the previews back because you can always regenerate the ones you need in Lightroom whereas restoring the catalog itself should be very fast.
  3. I will have a copy of my working photographic images on a SATA HDD (in the computer) as well as the RAID 0.
  4. For both Lightroom and Capture One, I save changes to the catalogue rather than to sidecar files. The RAW files are unchanged. So if I lose the RAID 0, I would simply need to point the catalogue to the SATA HDD with the other copy of the files. This would cover all of the original files and any changes in Lightroom. The only files I would need to restore from backup (as needed) would be JPEGs and TIFFs I have generated in other programs such as Photoshop, Zerene Stacker, Autopano Giga, SNS-HDR or Capture One
  5. The SSDs have a 5 year warranty so failures should be infrequent. They should be much more reliable than HDDs.


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Iceland Farmhouse uploading to The Cloud.


– Intel and AMD

My Intel X299 motherboard only supports Intel SSDs for RAID (VROC RAID), either on an Asus Hyper M.2 x16 card or the motherbard. If you want a RAID 5 or RAID 10, this requires a $250 hardware key but RAID 0 does not require a hardware key. Other SSDs such as Samsung SSDs are not compatible for a VROC RAID either on an Asus card or on the motherboard though they are fine to operate as single disks.

You can also get hardware keys for non-Intel SSDs such as Samsung, at $170 for RAID 0 and $400 for RAID 5. They definitely don’t work with X299 motherboards, either for an Asus card or directly off the motherboard, and Intel’s X299 VROC FAQ says only Intel SSDs are compatible so I’m not sure where you can use them.

I understand AMD motherboards don’t have this problem, you don’t need to pay extra for a hardware key and you can use non-intel SSDs. An AMD alternative, specifically an Asus Prime X399-A motherboard ($460) and an AMD Threadripper 2920X CPU ($800) is quite a bit cheaper than the Intel alternative and appears a better option though you can’t have a RAID 5. I haven’t checked out the fine print for this option though.


Concluding Comments

You can buy an off the shelf PC or get a custom one; if you want a high performance PC specifically for photography you may prefer a custom one. You can buy a custom PC from somone like Aus PC Market (as recommended by Image Science) or specify it yourself and either get someone to put it together or do that yourself. You can get a new PC or upgrade the components inside your case.

The prices I cited above will of course change over time and new options will become available.

Some thoughts on issues when renewing a PC:

  • You should read all manufacturer specs and the manual, and also consult the Qualified Vendor List (QVL) to make sure the components are compatible.
  • I found the Asus documentation was deficient in important respects and I also needed to consult Intel FAQs.
  • If you are upgrading RAM, you need to replace all your RAM rather than adding more, even of the same specification. Otherwise, your RAM is much more likely to fail.
  • Some vendors are better to deal with than others, especially if you encounter compatibility problems and need to return an item. I recommend Scorptec.
  • Back up your computer image and make a boot USB
  • Acronis lets you transfer your operating system to different hardware.

I don’t claim to be an expert, I just investigate what seems to be appropriate, do my research and follow my own path. I’m also not responsible for what you may encounter if you follow my example. Not many people would need a PC like this one, it all depends on your processing requirements and your budget. What you already have may be quite sufficient.

Also consider my earlier article, Computers for Photography which is more general and contains useful links.

Feel free to make comments or ask questions, though, to which I will respond to the best of my abilities.


Appendix 1: Links about computers


Appendix 2: Links about building a PC

How to Print

I am back from Ladakh but not yet ready to start posting on the trip. In the meantime, I will post technical articles I have already published for the Canberra Photographic Society Blog .:

  • Computers for Photography
  • Why Print?
  • What do you need for Printing?
  • How to Print
  • Lightroom Previews and Getting Lightroom to Fly
  • New Auto Changes in Lightroom
  • Backup for Photographers

Following this, I will start posting on the trip to Ladakh, then the Atacama (2015), then the Caribbean (2016).


How to Print


Printing is the primary vehicle for creating photographic art. In our digital age photographic printing is both more readily available and more capable of high quality than ever before. The most popular methods involve Lightroom and an Epson printer so that is what I will cover here.

Lightroom is the world’s most popular photo editing program with a simple interface that is easy to understand. My focus here is merely on printing. For more information on Lightroom there are many videos on the web including:

  • Julianne Kost .: Many free videos from Adobe
  • Luminous Landscape .: A systematic set of videos. You need to be willing to pay an annual $US12 for access to the site.

People who use Photoshop or non-Epson printers will still find this post relevant though some details will differ.

Soft Proofing

Soft proofing means simulating on your screen how the image will appear as a print on a particular paper. The most important prerequisite to make this possible is to calibrate your monitor with a good colorimeter. A colorimeter is a small device that reads colours and densities as it sits on your screen. It then delivers a monitor that shows your images with accurate colours and tonalities.

If you don’t have a profiled monitor, there’s no point trying to soft proof because your monitor won’t be able to display accurate colour. It may look accurate to you but our eyes and our brain are very good at making lighting appear neutral even when it is far from that. Tungsten light (old-style lightbulbs), fluorescent light and daylight, for example. In this case, you can still print but there will be a greater difference between your monitor and a default print. Probably you will end up spending much more time and money in paper for testing and your print quality may not be as good.

It helps to have a good monitor and it helps to have a good colorimeter (such as an X-Rite i1 Display Pro). It is also an advantage to have a wide gamut monitor (with an aRGB gamut rather than an sRGB gamut). No matter, you can work with whatever you have as long as your monitor is profiled with a reasonably good colorimeter.

OK, you have selected an image to print and you have a profiled monitor so we’ll go to the Develop Module in Lightroom for soft proofing…


How to Print - Develop screen for soft proofing .

Here we have the Lightroom Develop screen with soft proofing turned on. You won’t be able to see much detail at this size though if you click on the image it expands in another screen to 1920×1200 pixels, which may be useful if you’re on a PC. In any case, I’ve also expanded key parts of the screen to talk about them.


How to Print - Soft proofing check box ..

The first thing to do is to check the [Soft Proofing] checkbox, towards the bottom left of the Develop screen. Your image then displays as though a print against a white paper background. Lightroom adjusts the colours and densities to match that.

Just to the left of the [Soft Proofing] checkbox is a split box. Just to the left of that is a rectangle containing a darker rectangle. That button is active so that the overall screen at the top shows a single image, the image to be printed. Clicking on the split box splits the screen to show both how your unchanged image would look as a print and how it would look after you make some adjustments.


How to Print - Develop screen Profile settings ..

The next thing is go to the top right of the overall screen to specify the profile for the paper you intend to print from. This shows inside the box above. You select from a dropdown list and in this case it is a profile for a matte paper. In most cases this will be a generic paper profile from the manufacturer of the paper. It is possible to generate your own printer profile but for most people this will be overkill. If you’re printing on an Epson paper, that profile will come with the printer, though it’s always a good idea to check the US Epson site to see whether they have a newer and better profile there. If you’re printing on a non-Epson paper, you can download a profile for that paper from that manufacturer’s site.

Different papers can create quite different prints. Semigloss and particularly glossy papers can produce much darker black and brighter colours. Some glossy papers have a distinctive sheen and glossy papers can be easily damaged. Matte papers have a reduced tonal range and may be suitable for more subtle prints. I suggest starting off with one semigloss paper, perhaps later or also a matte. It may be better to develop a “feel” for the papers than perhaps initially confuse yourself with too much choice.

You can change the profile setting above through the dropdown to simulate how your print will look with different papers. If you have more than one paper available, that might help you to choose.

Below the profile setting is the Intent. You can choose Perceptual or Relative. Relative is usually the more likely choice. Perceptual may be more useful where you have bright colours that may be in danger of going out of gamut. The printer gamut is the set of colours and densities that the printer can accurately display. Relative keeps in-gamut colours accurate but clips out-of-gamut colours; Perceptual should work better with out-of-gamut colours but may distort in-gamut colours. You can try each to see which seems to work best for your image. Often it makes little difference.

[Simulate Paper and Ink] should be checked.


_13S0113-Edit . .

It’s even possible to have an image that’s essentially impossible to print. This image from the 2013 Sydney Blues Festival looks as though it would print easily enough but the blue especially is so far out of the printer’s gamut that it comes out dull and murky and I couldn’t get it to work, even after repeated tests. Usually this is not a problem, only for a few images with very intense stage lighting or in some cases, flowers. It is possible to test for out of gamut areas in both Lightroom and Photoshop but Jeff Schewe advises that this feature is not accurate and not to use it. He says that he will recommend a method for Adobe to fix this in future versions. Therefore, I will not be covering that.


How to Print - Virtual copy for Soft proofing dialogue box ..

When the [Soft Proofing] checkbox is checked and you make a change to the image, the dialogue box above appears. I usually choose the far right option, which creates a virtual copy that retains all the changes you make to make the print. Creating a virtual copy means that Lightroom leaves your RAW file unchanged and creates another set of instructions to modify the image, stored in a sidecar file or the catalogue.

Lightroom is a non-destructive editor that records all your changes and allows you to reverse them. The image shown in the overall screen at the top is a modified soft proof. There is a History section at the bottom left of the screen which starts with the entry for creating a proof copy and shows all the changes I made to enhance the print. You can go back and click on that image if you want to see the History section in a larger view.


How to Print - Develop screen Changes ..

Using the usual Develop screen sliders, I made some changes to the proof copy to make it more suitable for printing. The slider positions above include those changes but also the changes to optimise the print before the soft proof. Such Develop settings can vary widely from image to image. In this case, I made small changes to a variety of settings including highlights, blacks, clarity, lights, darks and tone-curve shadows. Usually I will make much fewer changes and sometimes none at all. Even subtle changes can often make a difference though.



Print settings and presets


How to Print - Print screen Profiles2 .


We have soft-proofed to enhance our image for printing. We now go to the Print screen in Lightroom so we can print. What makes life much easier here is that you can save your settings for a particular paper and size, and then reuse that time after time. I’ll show you what those settings need to be and how to save them as a preset.


How to Print - CM Dialogue .


First, in the Print Job section at bottom right of the Develop screen, under “Color Management”,we set the Profile and the Intent to the settings we used for soft proofing (in this case, Crane Museo Portfolio Rag and Relative). Draft mode printing is off. Print resolution is 360ppi for an Epson printer (and can even be 720ppi if your file size is not too small). Print sharpening I leave on at Standard. This is output sharpening and not something you can set by eye. Media Type should be glossy or matte according to the paper. This is so the sharpening works properly; matte papers need more output sharpening. Leave Print Adjustment off.

Now we could click the [Printer] button (on the Print screen above), set up Properties, and go through to print. But we’re not going to print yet, we’re first setting up a preset and any print setting we make will be lost if we exit out of the Print dialogue without printing. So instead we’ll click on the [Page Setup…] button at bottom left. The Epson [Print Setup] dialogue pops up. Next we click on [Properties]. This may appear slightly differently for different models of Epson printers.


How to Print - Printer Properties .


First we need to set the media type which here is here is Velvet Fine Art. You will find this setting in the documentation for your paper profile or you may even be using the Epson paper Velvet Fine Art. We can ignore the [Custom Settings…] and [Paper Config…] dialogues here.

Next, we’re printing colour so we choose “Color”.

Print Quality is “Quality” which here means 1440×770 dpi. If we were printing on a glossy or semigloss paper, we would probably choose “Max Quality” or 2880×1440 but there is no point for a matte paper. Different printer models may have different names for these terms.

Mode is “Off (No Color Adjustment)” because we are using colour management – printing with a profile from a profiled monitor.

Source is specific to the printer and the different choices you have for paper feed for different papers.

Size here is 13×19 in, or A3+.

Now we have finished with all our print settings so we click OK and return to the main screen to save the preset.


How to Print - Create Print Preset .


To name and create a new print preset, we go to the top left of the Print screen and click the plus sign [+] to the right of the heading “Template Browser”. For example, there is one already there for “SC_P800 Crane Museo Portfolio Rag A3+”. Now each time you go to print on that paper on A3+, you can click on that preset and everything is set up. You don’t need to go through each time and carefully set those parameters. As well as making printing much quicker it greatly reduces the risk of a mistake.

Advanced Black and White

Many Epson printers have an “Advanced Black and White” mode. This gives deeper blacks and potentially better image quality for black and white prints. However, if you want a toned monochrome, you are probably better of printing colour as above, or you will have to set the toning by trial and error in a dialogue box.

There are two things you need to do to print in ABW mode. First, at the bottom right of the Print screen, where we set the profile of the paper, instead select “Managed by the Printer” from that dropdown.

Then we need to make a modification to printer properties (screen capture before last). You can get to the Printer Properties dialogue box through [Page Setup..] at the bottom left of the Print screen, if you are setting it there or defining a preset. Otherwise you clicking the [Printer…] button at bottom right of the Print screen and get to it on the way through to printing. In either case, instead of setting Color to [Color], set it to [Advanced B&W Photo]. That also changes the value for Mode to [Neutral] and makes an [Advanced] button appear.


How to Print - Color Controls .


Clicking the [Advanced] button takes you to this screen. You can set toning by dragging the cursor round in the big colour wheel. The dialogue only shows you how the tone of that specific image of the young woman changes though, not the image you are trying to print. At the top, I always leave Color Toning to [Neutral] though other values are cool, warm and sepia and you can always click on those to see where the cursor goes in the colour wheel.

For the P800, I leave tone as [Dark]. I seem to recall the recommended setting was [Darker] for the 3800 and 3880. May be cause for experimentation and testing.

ABW isn’t colour managed to you can’t soft proof for it – though you can if you get a custom profile from Image Science (you won’t be able to roll your own here). This still won’t allow you to soft proof toning though.



Test prints

Having a calibrated monitor and creating a plausible soft proof will get you much of the way to a successful print. In some cases you’ll be able to print straight off the soft proof with no adjustments. In other cases you may need to put some time and effort into test prints to fine tune your final output. The soft proof is very useful but it can only take you so far. Prints have a texture, a physical presence and you’re looking at a reflected surface instead of the equivalent of a slide (i.e. a transparency film – do I need to say that for anyone?). And if you’re printing without colour management, you’re likely to expend much more paper and time and even then have less chance of “getting it right”.

Fortunately, Lightroom has some easy and powerful tools for generating test prints.


How to Print - Test Prints 3 .


Here we are using a 4×5 grid on A3+ paper to print out up to 20 test prints. This is a preset I created for just the arrangement of the grid. First I click on one of my A3+ presets for a specific paper, then I click on the preset for the grid. But if we look at the Print Job section at the lower right (as shown four screen captures up), we will see that [Draft Mode Printing] is checked. So we uncheck it and that reveals the paper type from the initial preset. I could have saved the grid preset with [Draft Mode Printing] unchecked but then it would have been for a specific paper. That would be a better option though if you use only one paper.

I made the grid preset by modifying the [4×5 Contact Sheet] preset provided with Lightroom.


How to Print - Layout 2 .


Starting from that preset, I checked [Rotate to Fit] so images rotate to fill the cell. Also, because the Lightroom preset was designed for an A4 sheet, there was too much space between the cells. I unchecked [Keep Square] towards the bottom and adjusted the Cell Height.

When printing out test prints, you’re usually going to want to make several passes on the same sheet of paper to print on all the squares. You can do this by adjusting the rows and columns. For example, suppose you want to start printing on the third row. I can see from the ruler to the left of the images that the top of this row starts at 19.5 cm. I change the number of rows in the Page Grid from 5 down to 3, and increase the Top Margin from 0.28cm to 19.5cm. (I can see the ruler because at the bottom of the screen above, I have the Guides checked, including the borders of the cells and the ruler at the sides.)

At the bottom of the Guides section, I have Dimensions turned off. When on, that shows the actual size your image will print at, as a small label at the top left of the image. This is just for the screen view and does not print. It is not relevant for test prints but very useful when you come to make the print, especially if you are printing for an existing matte.


How to Print - Page .


Further down the right side of the Print page, there’s another setting that can be useful for test prints. After checking the [Photo Info] checkbox, I’ve specified a label to occur below the images. Currently it’s set at Filename but there are various choices including Caption and Title. You might be printing a set of virtual copies of the same image with variations on a setting, say exposure. You might like to record abbreviated labels in either Caption or Title such as X +0.5, X +1.0, X +1.5, X +2.0. They would then print out below the image so you can be sure to identify the correct modification.

Finally, a general point. If your prints come out too dark and you have a calibrated monitor, then you may be calibrating to too high a brightness. Personally, I use 100 cd/m² for semigloss/ glossy papers and 90 cd/m² for matte. If your colorimeter can’t set the brightness, then you need a better colorimeter (or perhaps just the software for it, if you can upgrade that).


Right then, you’re ready to go to print, perhaps to print out some tests. It’s a good idea to first print out a nozzle check on plain A4 paper, particularly if you haven’t used the printer for a while (From the Print screen, [Printer] brings up the Epson Print Dialogue, then click [Properties], select the Utility tab and choose [Nozzle Check]).

To print you press [Printer] to bring up the Epson Print Dialogue. You may wish to click [Properties] to double-check your print settings. Then you press OK….


_P160665 .


Hopefully, after a few minutes, a wonderful print will emerge.

Further Reading

What do you need for Printing?

I am back from Ladakh but not yet ready to start posting on the trip.  In the meantime, I will post technical articles I have already published for the Canberra Photographic Society Blog:

  • Computers for Photography
  • Why Print?
  • What do you need for Printing?
  • How to Print
  • Lightroom Previews and Getting Lightroom to Fly
  • New Auto Changes in Lightroom
  • Backup for Photographers

Following this, I will start posting on the trip to Ladakh, then the Atacama (2015), then the Caribbean (2016).


What do you need for Printing?

In this post we will cover the following topics:

  • Fume Room
  • Camera
  • Computer
  • Monitor and colorimeter
  • Software
  • Lighting
  • Printer
  • Ink
  • Paper
  • Cost of printing
  • Matting
  • What to do with the prints


Fume Room

The chemical darkroom is essentially out of scope for this series, though you could potentially pick up say a second hand Mamiya RB67, compatible enlarger and accessories quite cheaply.  Printing from film in a darkroom is likely to actually work out much cheaper than a digital workflow, even with film costs, but also much more difficult and much more time-consuming.



Printing requires you have an image.  Creating an image usually requires that you have a camera.  So how good a camera do you need?  Do you need say a Nikon D850 with a professional lens for example?  Well, let me answer this at first by example.  The following image is of Selfoss in Iceland and it won a 5 (out of 5) in a monthly competition last year.  It was taken with a good camera – Nikon D3s and a good lens (85mm f1.4) but I discovered later there had been a problem.  I had been grappling with the settings of the camera while it was inside a raincover a week or two earlier in Greenland and hadn’t realised that instead of the usual 16MP RAW files, I had it set to save 2.8MP TIFF files.  After cropping the size of the file was 2.2MP.


_13S5354 .

Admittedly, my choice of paper helped.  I printed it on a matte paper which has a texture and less resolution.  I don’t think a glossy paper would have worked.   But what this shows if you can have sufficient inspiration and skill and get to the right place at the right time,  the camera doesn’t matter very much, at least as long as you understand the limitations of the camera and operate within them.



I’m not going to say much about computers because I just wrote an article about purchasing one.  You need something with enough RAM to process your files and enough disk space to store them.  It helps if it does something when you turn it on.


Monitor and Colorimeter

Having a good monitor makes a big difference and having it well profiled is almost essential for printing.  You can get away without that but you are likely to lose a lot of time in testing, you may find it difficult to achieve accurate colour and it may end up costing you more.  I’m not going to say much about monitors because I covered that in the Computers post.   NEC and Eizo make the best monitors; anything else is a compromise though no doubt a necessary compromise for many.  It is an advantage to have a monitor with an aRBG gamut (Adobe RGB) rather than an sRGB gamut because you will be able to more accurately see the colours of an image for printing.

Profiling the monitor is important because if we are not seeing accurate colour, we will find it difficult to print accurate colour.  Whether a monitor looks good anyway is besides the point.  Our eyes are very good at making lighting sources as different as daylight and tungsten light (old-style lightbulbs) appear normal.  Consequently, we can’t expect our eyes alone to adjust monitors.

To profile your minotaur monitor you need a colorimeter and the best one is the XRite Display Pro (at around $300).  Be wary of cheap options or old colorimeters as they may not be accurate, they may not allow important adjustments and they may not work well if you have a wide gamut monitor.  Some may wish to generate their own paper profiles with say an X-Rite ColorMunki Photo but this is optional; it probably won’t make much difference and profiling your monitor is the really important thing here.



There are many software choices for editing images and printing them.  If you have a profiled monitor though, what makes a big difference in printing is using a program you can soft proof with.  That means you can simulate how your print wil appear, on your screen.  It’s not perfect but it can be very helpful.  Photoshop is an option but these days most people use Lightroom which is a very powerful program that is also very easy to use.

These days, you can pay $14 per month for perpetually up-to-date versions of both Lightroom and Photoshop.  This is very good value compared to what prices used to be though if you stop paying you can no longer use the programs to modify your images (though you can still access the images).    There are many instructional videos for Lightroom and Photoshop on the web, such as those of Julianne Kost.  There are also comprehensive sets of videos on Luminous Landscape for both Lightroom and printing if you are willing to pay their subscription of $US12 per year.



Ideally, the room you process your images in should have dim consistent lighting and be neutral in colour.  If you are in a room with bright purple walls, it will affect your colour perceptions of your images on screen (as well as possibly your state of mind).  Preferably, you should also wear neutral clothing for the same reason.

Once you have generated a print, you need a neutral light source to assess it.  This can be sunlight, although its colour temperature changes throughout the day and may differ between direct sunlight and shadow.  Ordinary lightbulbs of whatever type are problematic, even if they are labelled “daylight”, unless you are printing for that specific light source.

The best light source for proofing is Solux bulbs, which are very accurate, and most people prefer a colour temperature around 5,000°K.  The problem is that they are MR16 bulbs – in other words they have two little round prongs like the small round lights that may be in your kitchen ceiling and they take low voltage direct current rather than 240V DC.  Fine if you can get them installed like your kitchen lights.  Alternatively, you could use a Graflite fluorescent desk light which is almost as good though the larger one, more suitable for A3+ prints, costs $300 (at Imagescience).

There is a way around this, if you’re adventurous enough.  From a local store such as Southside Lighting, you get an ordinary lamp and also a small inline transformer that converts from 240volt DC to a small direct current suitable for MR16 bulbs.  You get an electrician to insert the transformer in the lamp’s electrical line before the switch.  Now it’s no good for ordinary bulbs anymore.  Next, you order online a B22 (large bayonet) to MR16 converter or a E27 (large screw) to MR16 converter depending on your lamp fitting.  These are not available in a shop because they don’t meet Australian safety standards since someone might use them with an MR16 bulb without a transformer and effectively cause a short circuit.  When this arrives, you put the Solux bulb on it, insert it in the lamp and you now have a colour accurate light source for printing.



The choice for a photographic printer is likely to come down to different models of Epson inkjet printers.

It’s possible to print a photograph with a laser printer but it won’t handle the range of media that inkjet printers can, the colours and densities won’t be at all accurate unless you profile it yourself and even then it’s not likely to produce the quality of an inkjet printer.

Canon and HP still produce ranges of very large printers for the professional market, but HP has dropped out of the consumer market and Canon has a fairly low profile.  In any case, I’m not familiar with Canon printers and will confine my comments to Epson.

Here are some likely choices:

  • P800 (A2 printer): $1,900+: Excellent quality colour and monochrome images.
  • P600 (A3+ printer): $1,300+: Excellent quality colour and monochrome images.
  • P405 (A3+ printer): $900+:  Excellent quality colour but not as good for monochrome due to smaller ink set.
  • Artisan 1430 (A3+): $350+: Uses dye-based inks rather than pigment-based inks.  Probably excellent quality for colour images on glossy and semigloss paper.  May not be so good on matte and may not be very suitable for monochrome.  Will have higher ink cost due to small cartridges.



If you have an Epson printer, you should definitely use Epson ink.  You can get very cheap third party ink but that doesn’t mean it’s good value.  Such inks can kill your printer.  Also, you may need to get custom paper profiles which otherwise are not really necessary.



These days there is a bewildering variety of papers available.  At least initially, just have one or two and get to understand them.  If two, perhaps a semigloss paper and a matte.  Maybe try a few test packs to help decide.  Glossy and semigloss papers show brighter colours and deeper blacks than matte papers so they are suitable for different kinds of images.  Matte papers can give a subtler effect for lower contrast images.

If you want a first paper to start with on a new printer, perhaps Ilford Smooth Pearl is a good and relatively economical place to start.  It is suitable for both printers that use dye-based and pigment-based inks.  You need to be careful if you have a dye-based printer that you purchase suitable papers, not ones for pigment ink printers only.


Cost of Printing

You can of course print A4 prints but for purposes of a cost comparison, let’s say you decide to print for yourself and enter A3+ prints in CPS competitions for a year.  That’s sixteen A3+ prints in monthly competitions, two in Image of the Year, say four for Out There exhibition and five A4 prints for the Hedda Morrison portfolio competition.   That’s 22 A3+ prints and 5 A4, equivalent to around 24.5 A3+ prints.  We will not consider here what other prints you may generate.

An article by Mark Segal suggests ink costs of around $2 for an A3+ print from an Epson 3800 printer.  This should be about the same for a P800 or a P600 (the current models).  Say you’re printing Ilford Gold Fibre Silk, that will cost about $3.30 per A3+ sheet.  Assuming 25% for testing and wastage, that makes about $7.50 per A3+ print. That’s about $180 for printing costs for a competition year.

Getting Harvey Norman to make the same prints would cost $410 but they would have to be on a cheaper paper and lower quality and the paper sizes are slightly smaller.  Next step up, getting Bica to print them would cost $588 for “Premium Prints” and $1,031 for “Custom Prints” (and for A3 rather than A3+).  Next step up, getting Stephen Best to print them will cost $1,005 plus postage, or picking up from PhotoAccess on a Thursday or Friday, or trips to Braidwood.

I recently sold my Epson 3880 printer for $550 (to upgrade to a P800).  I had bought it six years ago for $1900.  My overall printing cost for that period was equivalent to getting prints made by Harvey Norman at much lesser quality and much less convenience.  I saved 60% (or $3,700) over getting custom prints made by Bica or Stephen Best.   So, buying a printer can pay off as long as you’re going to use it.



Prints in CPS competitions are usually matted.  It helps if you print in standard sizes because then you can reuse the matte for other prints.  Unlike prints, there is no particular reason to produce your own mattes; it’s a question of convenience and cost. There are three approaches you can take:

  • You can get some cut. Last time I did this it cost $15 each, but that’s a few years ago and it may be more now.
  • You can take the cheap option and use a Stanley knife for straight edges and a Dexter matte cutter for bevelled edges. Entirely possible but slow and painstaking.
  • If you will be cutting a fair few mattes, you may consider a “proper” matte cutter such as those from FrameCo.

Just briefly, if you are matting a print to permanently mount in a frame, you should use archival matte board and archival tape (from a specialist retailer) and hang the print from the top edge only so it can move in the frame.


What to do with the prints

A question some people ask is “what do you do with the prints?”.  Well, to some extent, this may not be the right place to start.  If you want to produce some outstanding prints that are truly yours because you printed them, you have to work at it.  The prints you produce after a few years may be greatly improved and you will have needed to produce the earlier ones to get there.

You can of course hang some on your walls and rotate them.  You may be able to give some away as presents.  In this case you need to be sure it really is your best work (probably no point even holding on to seconds) and also that other people really will appreciate them.  The Society competitions help to give you a good feel for that.  Similarly, you might like to send some prints to people you met while travelling.  You might want to hold an exhibition at some stage, when you feel you really understand your craft and have something to say.  You might even try selling some though that’s easier said than done and certainly extremely difficult to generate a significant income flow from fine art prints.

You can store them in the old boxes that the paper came in (or special boxes for the same purpose) or you can get special transparent envelopes to store them in.  I have also found album folios that can store 48 A3+ prints.  This is a very convenient way to show your prints to guests.


Why Print?

I am back from Ladakh but not yet ready to start posting on the trip.  In the meantime, I will post technical articles I have already published for the Canberra Photographic Society Blog:

  • Computers for Photography
  • Why Print?
  • What do you need for Printing?
  • How to Print
  • Lightroom Previews and Getting Lightroom to Fly
  • New Auto Changes in Lightroom
  • Backup for Photographers

Following this, I will start posting on the trip to Ladakh, then the Atacama (2015), then the Caribbean (2016).


Why Print?

This is Part 1 of a three-part series on printing:

  1. Why Print?
  2. What do you need for Printing?
  3. How to Print

These days when we are deluged with digital images and creating them is so readily available, why even bother to print? The short answer is that printing is an important learning tool that will help you to grow as a photographer and an artist.


Ansel Adams 1902–1984: “The Tetons and the Snake River”, Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, 1942. Vintage signed print. National Archives Unrestricted.

(Click for larger image).

There is a sale record for this print on Christie’s auction site. There is also a short article on some of their prints for auction and a brief video about Ansell Adams.


More often than not, a print will win Image of the Night in our Canberra Photographic Society monthly competitions, even when there are more digital images than prints. This is because a successful print has a special presence. It’s a tangible thing, a finished object, something with texture as well as tonality. In creating it, the process of closely examining an image, fine-tuning it and optimising it for a print will also show you a lot about your work that you might miss in merely preparing digital images.

OK, so you want to enter some prints in Society competitions or just generate some for your own purposes – so the next question is “Should you print them yourself?”. I believe the answer to that question should be Yes!. In short, it’s your best route to quality, it will probably work out cheaper and the final print will be all your own work.

You can of course get your images printed and there are many reasons to do this. It might be more economic if you make few prints, you don’t have a suitable printer, you may want a larger print than your printer can make or your printer may have died. There are many print competitions for which you submit digital images and then if you are a finalist they will print your work. Canberra Photographic Society competitions also allow commercially printed entries.

However, if you make your own prints, you should easily be able to get better results than a cheap commercial printer (such as Big W or Harvey Norman) and after a while you should also be able to get better results than a custom printer. This is because only you can understand your artistic vision and for that matter, making your own prints will help to develop it. While some prints may pop right out from screen through printer to print in completely satisfactory form, others may require considerable time and effort to optimise.

And I think the most compelling reason to do your own printing is that otherwise it’s not really your own work.

Former President Brian Rope told me a story that illustrates this from a more general perspective. Ostensibly, all that is required for an image to be yours (including a print) is that you pressed the shutter button on the camera. Some time ago, a photographic competition in China received a number of identical images from different people. It turns out they had all been to the same workshop. The convenor of the workshop had set up his camera on a tripod, carefully composed the image and made all the required technical settings. The attendees of the workshop all went through, put their cards in the camera and pressed the shutter button. Those entries were all disqualified from the competition of course. They might have pressed the shutter button but apart from that it was not their work.

In the Canberra Photographic Society we believe in freedom of information, assisting anyone who requests it and working cooperatively. Even so, ultimately I believe that everyone has to take responsibility for their own work, specifically the technical and artistic aspects that require an exercise of skill. There’s definitely skill in printing, both technical and artistic, and these skills are definitely worth picking up and exercising.

In summary:

  • Printing is an important part of Photography
  • Learning it and practicing it will help you to grow as a photographer and an artist
  • Printing your own prints should lead to better quality than a commercial print
  • You can probably make prints more cheaply than cheap commercial prints (details next post)
  • If you want it to really be your own work, you should print it yourself.

Any value judgements expressed above are entirely my own. Feel free to discuss any issues or ask any questions in the comments below.

Computers for Photography

I am back from Ladakh but not yet ready to start posting on the trip.  In the meantime, I will post technical articles I have already published for the Canberra Photographic Society Blog:

Following this, I will start posting on the trip to Ladakh, then the Atacama (2015), then the Caribbean (2016).

Later technical articles:


Computers for Photography

Unless you are shooting film and printing in a darkroom, you’re likely to need a computer to deal with and process your images. If you’re looking at purchasing one for photography, there are several things to consider:

  • Monitor
    • Colorimeter for profiling
    • Graphics cards
  • Computer
    • RAM
    • Storage
      • SSD or conventional
    • Chip
    • Software
  • Laptops
    • External drives
  • Backup
    • External hard drive or NAS
    • Software

So let’s consider each of these in turn, both from the point of view of a cheaper alternative and what’s the best you can have.




It’s better to have at least a reasonable quality monitor. If your monitor is too cheap or too old, it may not be capable of showing accurate colour. The main monitor types are TN and IPS. It is better to go for an IPS rather than a TN monitor because the appearance of TN monitors changes according to viewing angle and therefore may not show you an accurate picture of your image.

Another choice is “normal” gamut (sRGB) or “wide” gamut (aRGB). Wide gamut monitors are especially valuable for printing bceause you can fairly accurately simulate on screen the colours and densities of a printed image.

Another level of choice is resolution. The ultra high resolution 4K monitors have a resolution of something like 3840×2160 instead of 1900×1200. Photographic quality ones can be very expensive. You will also need an expensive graphics card to drive it. You will get amazing resolution and excellent colour but you may have problems with some software. For example, the Nik software suite may not work well on 4K because Google is not maintaining or updating it. You also need good eyesight or the extra resolution may be wasted.

Use them if you have to, but cheap monitors will not give you accurate colour and tonality. The best monitors are NEC and Eizo. NEC is pretty much as good as Eizo at a much lower price. However, NEC monitors are now unfortunately out of contention because NEC Australia has a new policy that it won’t replace monitors with up to 8 dead pixels (2 bright, 6 dark). So this leaves only Eizo for the highest quality monitors.

Fortunately there is a new player on the field -BenQ. While not as good as the Eizos they are still photographic quality at a much lower price.

Prices from Image Science are as followed, wide gamut unless otherwise indicated (you may be able to get a bit cheaper on the web):

  • 24″: $1,400 (Eizo CS2420) or $760 (Eizo EV2455, standard gamut)
  • 27″: $1,900 (Eizo CS2730) or $1,300 (BenQ PV270) or $1,000 (BenQ SW2700PT, previous model, uniformity not as good)
  • 31″ 4K: $7,500 (Eizo CG318) or $2,000 (BenQ SW320) or $1,900 (BenQ PV3200PT, previous model)

Here is an article from ImageScience on buying monitors.

If your budget is more limited, the choices are more complex because it is a question of how much you are willing to pay and how far you are willing to compromise and there is a multitude of choices out there.

Articles from Image Science:


A good colorimeter is almost essential, especially for printing. Your eyes can adjust to see both daylight and tungsten light as normal so they are not good tools to adjust monitors, so you should use a good colorimeter to calibrate and profile your monitor. The best colorimeter is the X-Rite i1 Display Pro. (Online prices start from just under $300).


If you have an old computer and it works for you then it works for you. You might get more life out of it with more RAM but then new computers are cheaper than they used to be. If you are considering a new one:

  • Generally you would want at least 16GB RAM though you may get away with less.
  • The CPU is not so critical as long as it’s not too old and slow. You don’t really need a state of the art gaming chip.
  • These days, it’s better (and faster) to boot up off an SSD rather than a spinning drive. (An SSD or Solid State Drive is like a larger version of a flash drive or an SD card). SSDs are getting cheaper and you might even choose to go for a second SSD for your Photoshop scratch file and Lightroom catalogue.
  • Your graphics card can also be relevant as with many graphics cards you can enable GPU processing to speed up the display and transformation of an image on the screen.
  • Your motherboard is relevant as it will determine what generation of chip your system can support and whet you can plug in. For example, the newer M.2 generation of SSDs is much faster provided you have a board that supports them. The current generation of architecture is based on the Kaby Lake chip.

For ultimate performance, you may want a custom PC. You could either build this yourself or get someone to build it for you. In Canberra, this might be MSY (don’t expect salesmanship and demonstration from them; you need to know what you want first).

Here are some guides to a custom PC:

And here is a couple of guides if you are in the market for a Mac:

Another thing to consider is storage. It depends partly on how many images you delete and how large the image files are from your camera, but it is common in the digital age to need lots of space for image storage. SSDs may take over in due course because they are faster and probably more reliable but that’s still some way off so for most storage we still rely on spinning disks.

Larger spinning disks are now available. You would want a 7200rpm drive rather than the 5400rpm ones which are more suited to backup and Western Digital Black drives now go up to 6TB. If that is not enough storage you could combine several drives in a RAID array. This can both speed up operations and give some protection against disk failure. Your motherboard and operating system would need to support the size of drive or type of RAID you might want.

One last thing that may be worth considering is a UPS or Universal Power Supply that will protect your PC against power spikes and enable you to save your work in the event of a loss of power.

(I will consider printers in a separate article).


There is a huge variety of laptops available in all sorts of different configurations. For most photographers the main purpose of laptops is for travelling. For some, the sole purpose is storing images in which case RAM and screen resolution are not so important. Others want a machine they can process images on in available time while they travel. RAM and screen resolution then become much more important. In either case, USB 3 inputs will make a big difference in speed of importing images. So will SSD hard drives. It is possible these days to purchase a laptop with a 4K screen, 32GB RAM and a 1TB SSD hard drive though such machines are not yet readily available in Australian retail outlets and will not be cheap.

The alternative to a travel laptop is lots of SD or CF cards but this may not be practical on a longer trip.

This page from Puget Systems shows what might be possible with a very highly specified custom laptop though at 3.4kg this is a desktop replacement unit rather than one for travel. (Click the [Customise] button for specification options).


It is common for people to be sanguine about backup until the first time their computer goes down and they lose lots of files. Ideally you should have two or three backups and one should be stored offsite in case of fire or other disaster. These could be single external drives or you could use a NAS, which combines multiple hard drives in a RAID array and which you may specify for access from a home network.

If you rely on SD cards or CF cards while travelling, you may not have your images backed up and would therefore be at risk of losing them. If using a laptop while travelling, you should also be backing up to external disks. External SSDs are a much lighter option than conventional drives and can readily fit in a pocket. They are still more expensive but becoming more affordable.

To backup files you need backup software which can be Windows (which I admit I haven’t tried for this purpose), a third party product such as Acronis, or possibly software that comes with your hard drive.

It can also happen that your C Drive crashes or gets a virus. To cover for such an event you should make a system rescue disk so you can still boot up your PC from it, and save a system image so you can quickly get back your C Drive in a functional state.

Photographic Equipment used in “From Dusk to Dawn”

Normally the image is what’s important so I don’t comment on the equipment I use.  Having good equipment does matter but not so much compared to vision, technique, testing, hard work, aesthetics, intuition and thinking.  But this is different.  I’m showing an historic project made using historic equipment.  Film is all but dead now and not many readers will know much about large format cameras.  These are essentially the same as the cameras used during the nineteenth century except that the medium is film rather than glass plates.  Hence this post.


View through the ground class of Arca-Swiss Monorail camera

This is the view you see on the ground glass screen at the back of a large format camera, specifically a random view in the rain from my front door in inner city Canberra.   The view on the ground glass is 5×4 inches because that is the sheet film size.  By contrast, 35mm is over 13 times smaller at 1×1.5 inches.   To focus, you use a focusing magnifier on the ground glass with your head under a large piece of black cloth called a dark cloth.  If you want a vertical image, you take off the back of the camera and put it back on in portrait orientation.

The image you see is upside-down and back-to-front.  This can be confusing with fine framing adjustments yet is actually beneficial as you see compositions in abstract terms.  When you are finished focusing and composing and the camera is locked in position, you slide a film holder in under the ground glass screen.  Usually this would be a double dark slide, which holds two sheets, one on each side.  I was using Graflex backs, which hold six sheets and rotate as you take each exposure.  I also had a 6×7 roll film back.

Whatever back you use, the film is protected from inadvertent exposure to light by an aluminium plate called a dark slide.  To take an exposure you first have to measure the light using a hand-held exposure meter.  I usually used my meter in incident mode which measures the light by pointing at the light source rather than the object.  Then you set the shutter speed and exposure on the lens. Next you pull out the dark slide and trigger the shutter using a cable release.  Having made the exposure, you then push the dark slide back in.

Next, you rotate to the next film holder (Graflex back) or advance to the next exposure (roll film back).  You need to do all these things in correct order or disaster ensues.

This is a whole different kind of photography than blazing away with a digital camera.  You are not going to take many exposures in the course of a day.  You need to know what you want to take before you set up the camera.  There are many technical things to get right in the correct sequence but then when you come to compose and take the exposure, it becomes a meditative process.


Arca-Swiss Monorail camera with Linhof Schneider Symmar 150mm lens

This is the camera from the other side and you can see the 150mm Linhof Schneider lens.  There are many adjustment possibilities here.  The front and the back standards of the camera can both slide along the rail and you adjust this to focus the camera.  The camera is here focused on the trees in the front yard as we saw in the previous image and the standards are fairly close together.  Full bellows extension would be for a macro shot.

The squarish black knobs on the side of the standards let you lower or raise the front or back of the camera to correct for converging or diverging verticals due to the camera viewpoint, for example in photographing buildings.  This is called rise and fall.  The grey knob just below the lens lets you move the front standard sideways for the same purpose.  There’s also a similar knob for the back standard.  This is called shift.

The black levers below each standard allow you to change the angle of the front and back of the camera.  This leads to tilt (vertical angles) and swing (horizontal angles).  Without tilt and swing (and for most other cameras), an image will be in focus only at a particular distance; this means you are focusing around a plane parallel to the camera.  When using a view camera you have other choices.  Let’s say you tilt the rear standard back and the front standard forwards.  If you extend the angles of the standards, they will meet at some point.  You can now focus on any plane that runs through that point.  For example, if you have a field in front of you, you can adjust the angles of the front and rear standards so that you are focusing on the whole surface of the field instead of just to a distance in it.  This is called the Scheimpflug Effect.

I used large format cameras because they can deliver optimal image quality for printed reproduction.  Usually I did not use movements.  Sometimes I used rise and fall and shift but I did not use tilt and swing in this project.


Arca-Swiss Monorail camera on Manfrotto 058B tripod

Here is the Arca-Swiss monorail camera on the Manfrotto 058B tripod I mainly used. Together they weigh eleven kilos and the tripod is as solid as a rock.  It is shown here unextended and it goes much higher.  You may notice the locking nuts on the stays to ensure rigidity.  It has a centre column that you can crank up using a winder and it is the rare case of a tripod where you can use a centre column without compromising the rigidity of the tripod.  You can see two small red levers near the centre of the tripod.  There are six of these, two for each leg so you can access them in different ways.  If you hold the tripod in the air where you want it and push a set of three levers in, the legs fall out onto the ground and you can lock them there in place.

Actually, I started out with a different tripod, an ancient Sampson wooden tripod.  Coming back from one journey, it left Perth in one piece and arrived in Canberra in two.  Consequently, Ansett (an airline that no longer exists) bought me a new tripod.  Since their policy was to replace with a new item from the same maker and new Sampson tripods were prohibitively expensive, I got to choose the tripod I wanted and even rent one while they made up their mind.  Over 25 years later, the 058B is still a current Manfrotto model.

The Arca-Swiss monorail camera lives in a large leather box of some antiquity.  I had an aluminium base made for it to fit in so I could wheel it around in a golf trundler (aka buggy).  The tripod I could strap to the top of the box.


Nagaoka Field Camera, expanded with Linhof Schneider 90mm Angulon lens

This is the Nagaoka Field Camera that I used when I was off walking somewhere, clambering down cliffs for a dawn shot or even bushwalking for the right view.  It is a much lighter and more compact camera than the Arca Swiss with less movements but still capable of fine image quality.

I bought the Nagaoka new and it would only have been a year or two old in 1987.  In contrast, the Arca-Swiss and the lenses date back to the 1960s though change is very slow for that sort of camera and lenses.

The lever at the top of the lens cocks the shutter and the lever at the bottom fires the shutter if you are not using a cable release.  The lever that cocks the shutter operates in a slot that leads down to the innards of the lens.  There is no weather sealing at all.  If operating such lenses in the rain, an umbrella is an essential accessory, for the lenses not for you.  I was lucky I encountered very little rain in my travels for this project.

Two of the three lenses I used are Linhof Schneiders rather than just Schneiders.   This is because they were tested and selected from new lenses at the Schneider factory for use on Linhof cameras (I don’t own any Linhof cameras, though).


Nagaoka Field Camera, folded up without lens

And the camera is very compact when folded up.

When I went bushwalking in the 1980s, I had a large shoulder bag for my camera equipment that fitted in the bottom of my pack and there was a zip in the pack down there so I could take out the camera bag without disturbing anything else.  I also had a light though reasonably stable tripod on the side of my pack.  My standard pack would weigh about 25 kilos (55 pounds) including 15 kilos of camera equipment. I had two days of bushwalking in this project to take images of Tasman Island from Cape Pillar in Tasmania and probably carried my “standard pack”.

I am somewhat bemused when I read on the web of people who are disconcerted that they may have to carry a few kilos of camera equipment.  Sometimes travelling very light makes sense; in other circumstances I suspect that it shows they are not very interested in photographic quality.

These days I probably prefer not to carry more than 15 kilos.  Of course, if you’re smaller than me you will be able to carry less and if you have a back problem that will seriously compromise you.  Either way, the most important thing is to have a good quality pack that is well adjusted for you.  Cheap or inferior packs can be disasters.


Accessories for 5×4

Here are some of the accessories I used with the 5×4 cameras.  In front is a Graflex back that holds six sheets of 5×4 sheet film.  On top of it at middle right is a Nikon focusing magnifier which I probably used for the Lighthouse project.  On top of it at rear left is a Quantum Calculite XP exposure meter which can meter about three stops below the light of a full moon.

To the right is a roll-film back which records exposures in 6×7 format (that’s 6×7 centimetres as compared to 5×4 inches, so smaller than 5×4).  In the centre rear is a Pentax spot meter.  I had one and it got stolen and I replaced it some years later.  I’m not sure whether I had one at that time.  If I didn’t, the Quantum has a spot attachment that gave a rough equivalent.  In the rear is a spare recessed lens board for use with the 65mm Schneider on the Arca-Swiss monorail camera.  Wide angle lenses needed recessed lens boards or else the front standard would be too far away from the film for them to focus at infinity.


1937 Rolleiflex Automat TLR and waterproof case

Initially I used the Department’s Mamiya 645 for quicker images. When that broke down I started using my 1937 Rolleiflex.  To my surprise, the image quality was far superior to the Mamiya although in some circumstances I had to be careful about flare with its uncoated lenses.  It is now over 75 years old and was 50 years old even then.

You will notice it has two lenses.  It is a twin-lens reflex.  You look down on the top of the camera through a ground glass screen and the top lens and there is a magnifier that pops out if required.  As with the 5×4 cameras, you see the image upside down and back-to-front.  You take the picture through the bottom lens.  They were popular cameras in the 1950s and 1960s because they are almost completely quiet and since you don’t hold the camera up to your eye, you can be quite unobtrusive.

Behind it is a waterproof aluminium case that I suspect is much rarer than the camera.  I picked it up separately to the camera but from the emblem on top it appears to be of similar vintage.


Nikon FE with Nikkor 16mm f3.5 fisheye plus Vivitar Series 1 28mm f1.9

This is the Nikon FE with the 16mm f3.5 fisheye and the Vivitar Series 1 28mm f1.9 lenses.  I mainly used the Nikon for the 16mm fisheye lens which was not available to me in larger formats.  I also used the Vivitar Series 1 28mm for one image taken from the air, so I have included that as well.


5×4, 120 and 35mm film

Here is a selection of films showing the difference in sizes.  At the bottom is a couple of boxes of 10 5×4 sheets of Fujichrome 50 that I used at the time.  The other films are more recent but included for size comparison.  For the 120 films I would have used Fuji 50 rather than Velvia and one of the rolls of Velvia is out of the box, unopened.  I did use some Fujichrome 400 but it would have been of a different generation to the box at the back.  The 35mm roll is Agfachrome 1000 RS whereas I would only have used Fuji 50 in 35mm.

Slide film could produce fine images but has much less exposure latitude than current digital SLRs.  Before the digital era there was no capacity to combine multiple images to extend the tonal range.

The prints for the exhibition I printed myself in my chemical darkroom as a matter of principle as much as anything else, though my printing skills were OK.  Unless you take control of all stages of the photographic process that involve aesthetic judgements, the work is not really your own.  In the chemical era, this did not apply to processing the film which was a mechanised process that you could not expect to improve upon by doing it yourself.

Most of the images I will show in following posts were scanned with a Microtek 1800F scanner and a few with my Canon 9950F scanner.  I scanned most of the images in probably 2005 or 2006 but did little processing at the time because the computer technology of the time made processing very slow.

Certainly the files are huge.  Most of the scans start out over 300MB and with a few layers in Photoshop they can easily get over 1TB.  There is also an unfortunate byproduct of the scanning.  The Microtek scanner had a system where you put the film in a drawer inside the scanner so the scanner glass didn’t degrade the image.  The trouble with that was that the inside of the scanner filled up with dust over time, dust reduction was not available with the scans and each image requires a long painstaking process of manual dust removal.  Probably just as well there are less than 100 5×4 images.  Each image is likely to take some teasing out.

Summary of Equipment:

  • Cameras
      • Arca-Swiss Monorail camera (5×4)
      • Nagaoka Field camera (5×4)
      • Rolleiflex Automat Twin Lens Reflex (1937) with 75mm Zeiss Tessar f3.5  (6×6)
      • Mamiya 645 with 80mm Mamiya-Sekor f2.8 (6×4.5)
      • Nikon FE (35mm)
  • Lenses (for the 5×4 cameras)
      • Schneider Super Angulon 65mm f4.5 lens
          • (35mm equivalent: 20mm)
      • Linhof Schneider Angulon 90mm f6.8 lens
          • (35mm equivalent: 28mm)
      • Linhof Schneider Technika Symmar f5.6 150mm lens
          • (35mm equivalent:  50mm)
  • Lenses (for 35mm)
      • Nikkor f3.5 16mm fisheye lens
      • Vivitar Series 1 28mm f1.9 lens
  • Accessories
      • 2x Graflex backs (for 5×4 cameras)
      • Fidelity 6×7 rollfilm back (for 5×4)
      • Quantum Calculite XP exposure meter
      • Dark cloth and focusing magnifier (for 5×4 cameras)
  • Tripods
      • Manfrotto 058B tripod and 3-way head
      • Small Slik tripod
  • Film
      • Fujichrome 50, 64 Tungsten, 100, 400
          • (Velvia was not yet released)
  • Darkroom
      • Cibacrome CAP-40 processing machine
      • Omega Chromega D2 or D5 (?) with Schneider Componon 135mm f5.6
  • Scanner
      • Microtek 1800F scanner using Silverfast